– Optical illusion number one: I actually have long, flowing dreadlocks. I wish. So optical illusions have fascinated humanity since, well, forever. And they’ve gotten more
intense over the years as certain people have figured out ways to trick our eyes that trick our brains into thinking something’s
there that isn’t. So I’ve gather some of the
most intense optical illusions that have ever existed. Some of which, or all of which, are going to simply melt your mind. Oh, and I’m also going to explain who created them and how they work. So without further ado, here are 10 Optical Illusions
That Will Melt Your Mind. Number one is The Hermann Grid. The Hermann Grid is a
famous optical illusion in which white lines
cross over a black square to form a grid. It’s named after Ludimar Hermann, a German psychologist and speech scientist who originally discovered it in 1870. What’s interesting about
this illusion is that unlike many others, the effect happens almost instantaneously as at every point where the white lines intersect, a tiny grey shadow appears. Or at least to your eyes. However, the moment that you look directly at the point
where those lines cross, the shadow (popping noise) disappears. Those intersections are
like tiny, little ghosts, and then the second you look at them just (ghostly howl) they’re gone. (sniffling quietly) I’m scared! Number two is The Kanizsa Triangle. While this one looks like
a crazy, multi-player game of Pac-Man, it’s much more. The Kanizsa Triangle
is an optical illusion in which no triangle actually exists in what you’re looking at,
but yet you can see one. Named after Gaetano Kanizsa, an Italian psychologist and
artist who served as the founder of the Institute of Psychology of Trieste, he was one of the first to
report on the effect in 1976. When you look at the picture,
your brain creates contours, which basically outlines, in this case, the shape of a triangle. But it can be used in
other shapes as well. See, where your mind expects
to see completed circles, you see a piece missing and all together, the missing pieces tell your brain an invisible triangle must be there. But the truth is, it’s not! It’s like witchcraft. Number three is The Ponzo Illusion. A lot of these are created by Italians. Italians are tricksy! First discovered by Italian psychologist Mario Ponzo in 1911, the Ponzo Illusion has had countless variations
ranging from chairs, to blocks, to simply squiggly lines. But the trick behind
it is always the same. What is the trick? Well, it might surprise
you, but the two objects that you’re looking at are
actually the exact same size. And the objects always differ. Sometimes it’s monsters,
sometimes it’s trucks, and sometimes it’s simply lines. The reason that one looks
larger than the other is because of the image behind them. See, your brain is always
compensating for distance, expecting whatever is
further down the line to be smaller than if you were close. See, once again, it’s your
brain playing tricks on you. By the end of this video, you’re not going to believe anything. I’m not even here. (ghostly sounds) That was Putty from Power Rangers. I don’t know what that was. On to the next one! Number four is The Fraser Spiral. Also known as the false spiral and the twisted cord illusion, the Fraser spiral is
another optical illusion named after the person that discovered it. In this case, it was British
psychologist James Fraser who found it in 1908. When you look at it, it
may seem like there are spiraling lines rolling
down into infinity. However, the pattern
you’re actually seeing is a series of concentric circles. What?!
Okay, let me ‘splain. The reason that your mind
is telling you it’s a spiral is because of the misaligned
triangles in checkered style which causes your eyes to see
false twists and deviations. Like this. Okay, no, actually that
was just me moving my body. Just keeping you on your toes! Number five is The Munker-White Illusion. What if I told you that in the image that you’re looking at right now, the two colors are actually
the exact same color? Yeah, they are. There are literally
thousands of variations of the Munker-White
Illusion, some being boxes, while others are circles
or even corkscrews. Regardless, the effect that
you’re looking at is the same. It’s tricking your eyes into
seeing a distinct difference between the two colors. Or, as Mr. M. White first witnessed it, two different shades of grey,
which are exactly the same. The reason this illusion is
possible is because our brains judge colors by comparing them
to the surrounding colors. If you can’t quite see it,
or simply don’t believe me, take a screenshot of that
image, throw it into Photoshop, and test the two different colors. You’ll find that they aren’t different. They’re exactly the same. Number six is The Zollner Illusion. This illusion is an old one. First discovered in 1860 by
a German astrophysicist named Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner
in a letter that he wrote to physicist and scholar,
Johann Christian Poggendorff. It consists of several long lines, each crossed over by tiny lines. Now, while the image seems
to show the longer lines running at different angles,
it’s going to amaze you to know that every line that you’re looking at is perfectly parallel to the others. There are two easy ways to prove this. The first, is by using a
ruler to measure the distance between the bottoms of the
two lines and the tops. The other is by matching
each line to one line that is two lines away, and
thus has the same angled small lines crossing it. This is another example
of how lines can seem distorted by their backgrounds. For example, it may seem like
I have a crazy face right now. (monkey sound) But it’s actually just because
there’s a sloth behind me. See that?
Okay, I actually did that. I just wanted to fit a sloth
into my video at some point. Missing accomplished! Number seven is The Troxler’s Effect. This another optical illusion
that takes a few moments to really appreciate. Take a moment to stare at the center of this blurry image for about 30 seconds. See what happens. What should happen is that
is should begin to fade until it’s almost invisible to your eye. This occurs because of
the Troxler’s Effect, which basically tells us
that if we fixate our gaze on a particular point for
even a short amount of time, unchanging stimulus around
the area will gradually fade away and disappear. The effect was first discovered
all the way back in 1804 by a Swiss physician called
Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler. That’s a mouthful. Since then, there have
been a number of other optical illusions that
have used this effect. Does this effect work on people? Cause I would love to stare
at Donald Trump for a while and just see what happens. Number eight is The Hybrid Image. This illusion is actually quite new compared to the other
illusions on this list, having only been proposed in 1994, and then recently perfected
by Aude Oliva of MIT and Philippe G. Schyns
of University of Glasgow. The most likely famous
example that you’re going to find online is this one: the Albert Einstein and
Marilyn Monroe illusion. Look closely at the image. You’ll see the finer details of Einstein on a blurry background, but backing away or shrinking
the image will reveal an underlying image of Marilyn Monroe. Now this one’s really trippy,
but the reason that it occurs is because of the way that your
brain processes visual input and the hybrid image’s
combination of the lower number of pixels in Monroe’s
picture and the larger number of dense pixels in Mr. Einstein’s. Try it right now for yourself. Look at the image closely and then back all the way up from it. You’ll see what I’m talking about. Number nine is Illusory Motion. Whoa man! Psychedelic. (giggles) The person who originally
discovered this illusion is actually a highly debated topic in the scientific community. However, the Motion Illusion was proven by Roger B. H. Tootel and
his team by showing images to patients while they underwent an MRI. Look at the image. It seems to move when
you look away from it because of the cognitive
effects of interlacing color contrasts and shape
positions within it. In fact, this is actually a
trick that many advertisements have used on billboards and
signs to catch your attention. Nothing that you’re looking
at is actually moving, but it’s essentially that your
brain just can’t handle it, so it appears to be moving cause it’s just trying to make sense of it. See? I’m not even moving! But your brain’s just
trying to figure out why there’s this eraser-shaped headed man just staring at me. And number ten is The Thatcher Effect. Oh look, a completely normal
picture that’s upside-down. Okay. Let’s just spin that
right-side up and wait, WHAT?! Originally discovered in 1980 by psychology professor Peter Thompson, The Thatcher Effect is
actually named after the former Prime Minister of
Britain, Margaret Thatcher. It was named after her
because it was her image that Thompson used to initially
demonstrate this illusion. See, our brains have trouble
discerning the differences in the obviously introverted features when the picture’s upside-down. This is because the part
of the brain devoted to face perception is rarely used to discern features in that position. Essentially, we see the
features but can not properly perceive how
ridiculous they look until we see them on a face oriented the way that we’re used to seeing it. For example, I’m smiling right now. Can you tell? And now, your brain should
be sufficiently melted. However if you still
have your wits about you, be sure to click that red Subscribe button to subscribe to my channel so that you can catch my next video. And don’t forget to add me to the Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagrams because I like to interact
with you guys off of YouTube just as much as on YouTube. So, have a great day guys, and I will see you in the next video. Peace.