Now you know how you make a question in English. For example you have a sentence such as you “can ride a horse” and you
want to make it into a question, all you do is to take the pronoun you and the
modal auxiliary verb CAN and swap them around. “can you ride a horse?” That’s easy
“You have got a chocolate doughnut” switch the pronoun and the modal auxiliary verb
and you get, “have you got a chocolate doughnut?” easy! But you knew that
already didn’t you? And if there is no modal or auxiliary
you add DO. “You like unicorns” becomes “Do you like unicorns?” very easy, but did
you know that this swapping around thing we do we don’t do just for questions and
did you know that this swapping around thing is called inversion.
That’s right inversion let’s look at a few more cases of when we use it. Stay
tuned Hello and welcome to LetThemTalk and
today we’re going to talk about inversion. When you start a sentence with
some negative phrases, when you want to sound more dramatic or emphatic you use
inversion let’s look at a few cases. NOT ONLY “Not only are you brilliant but you
also beautiful” Remember it’s not “not only you are” but
“not only are you” because of inversion. “Not only was grandma a great pianist she also spoke Latin” correct my sentence; “not only she is rich she is also nice” that’s right, “not only IS SHE rich she is
also nice” correct my sentence; “not only he speaks Chinese but also Japanese” no
modal verb there so just like in a question we add the verb DO in the third
person so it becomes; “not only does he speak Chinese but also Japanese.” Remember if
the verb is the same in the second part of the sentence you don’t need to repeat
the verb a second time. So for example; “Not only will I be here tomorrow but
also next week” you could say; “not only will I be here tomorrow but I will also
be here next week” but, as I said, it’s not necessary to use WILL twice. By the way
we have a video just on this subject of NOT ONLY linke up here somewhere. Here
are a few more phrases that use inversion when they begin a sentence.
“NEVER have I been so insulted” Can you say “I have never been so insulted” Yes
you can but using inversion gives it some more oomph! and it shows an
element of surprise “Never have I been so insulted”, Never have I’ve been so surprised as when I saw your mother kissing Prince Harry.” After NOT ONCE “not once have you told me the truth.” “You haven’t once told me the truth.” That’s perfectly but to add
drama start the sentence we’ve NOT ONCE “not once did you tell me the truth.” Can
you rewrite this sentence with INVERSION “You didn’t help me, not once” that’s right
“Not once did you help me” remember in this and other negative sentences with
inversion, inversion only applies when you start the sentence with the negative
phrase and not if it’s within the phrase so you say “You haven’t once told me the
truth” no inversion but “not once have you told me the truth.” “He is not only
brilliant but also handsome” No inversion but “not only is he brilliant but also
handsome” NO SOONER “no sooner had I arrived than he told me I was fired” NO
WAY “No way am I going to eat those frog legs I know your mother made them for me. I don’t care” Can you make this sentence using inversion “I won’t let you
borrow my car, no way” You got it “No way will I let you borrow my car”
well done brilliant LITTLE DID I KNOW LITTLE DID I KNOW or LITTLE DID YOU KNOW this is an interesting phrase and again use it for dramatic effect but it
doesn’t mean you know a little it means you know nothing. Nothing. “Little did I
know that the murderer was sitting opposite me on the train.” “Little did she
know that her life was about to be turned upside down.” UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES. “Under no circumstances will you be allowed to enter the
building site without a hard hat” you might also find the version
after these expressions: RARELY, BARELY HARDLY, SCARCELY and SELDOM they are
quite literally and not that common so I won’t be using them in this video but if
you’re reading, especially literature or listening to a formal conversation do
look out for them. Next you use inversion after neither and nor in two ways
firstly with short replies when you agree with a negative
“I don’t like aggressive people” -neither do I (or nor do I) I mustn’t eat too many cakes – nor must I/ neither must I Also when nor on either introduces a second negative in a sentence let’s have a look. that’s an example of that. “My friend
doesn’t like flying and neither do I” or “nor do I” “I’m not here tomorrow and nor
are you” Can you rewrite the sentence using NEITHER or NOR. “John has never been to pakistan and his wife has never been to Pakistan” quite a clumsy sentence so
what do you think “John has never been to Pakistan and nor has his wife.” That’s
right inversion works in the same way after SO in short answers “You like Korean pop music – so do I” and in sentences with two affirmatives “Johnson will go to prison for the crime and so will Perkins.” “Doris is a vegetarian and
so am I.” Now after some words that express
surprise we use inversion “Wow Is he clever.” it’s not a question it looks like
a question by it’s not, it’s an exclamation. “Boy! Am I tired”, “Man! Do you
look sick” again it’s not a question. I’m not asking if you’re sick I’m telling
you you’re sick. I’m shocked by it. I’m using the dramatic effect of inversion. “Bloody hell! Is this difficult.” “Blimey! Am I tired” “Oh my god! have I done something
stupid.” now it’s your turn. “Phew it is hot today” with inversion: “Phew is it hot today.” Very good Finally you can use a new version with the first
second and third conditionals when you use another word instead of IF to make
the conditional the first conditional you can you SHOULD although this is very
formal “if you see Jane on the high street give her a kiss” so just replace
the IF with SHOULD “Should you see Jane on the high street then give her a kiss.”
You can use it it’s a bit formal but you can use it for the second
conditional replace IF pronoun/noun WERE with WERE pronoun without the IF. “If grandma were alive today she would love BTS” that becomes “were grandma like today she would love BTS.” Again this is very formal. not so common but if you want to use it
please do so. Personally I prefer to use the IF version. Finally, the third conditional you can replace IF noun/pronoun HAD with HAD noun/pronoun. For example. “If I’d known you
were coming I would have baked a cake,” becomes, “Had I known you were coming I would have baked a cake.” Now unlike the first and second conditional examples
this HAD I is used fairly often in everyday conversation. Can you change this
sentence to start to it with HAD “If you had arrived one minute
later you would have missed the train.” your turn.
“Had you arrived one minute later you would have missed the Train.”