GOOD MORNING.
WELCOME TO THE SECOND DAY OF OUR FEBRUARY NVAC MEETING.
I APPRECIATE YOU JOINING YOU TODAY AND SHARE YOUR ENTHUSIASM FOR THE DECADE AHEAD AND IMMUNIZATION.
I’D LIKE TO START BY AND THANKING ANN AND THE STAFF WHO PUT IN TREMENDOUS TIME AND EFFORT,
PLANNING, EXECUTING THOUGHTFUL AND ROBUST AGENDA.
LET’S BEGIN WITH A FEW HOUSEKEEPING ITEMS. I WANT TO MAKE SURE EVERYONE IS AWARE THIS
IS A PUBLIC MEETING, PEOPLE CAN WATCH ONLINE OR LISTEN BY DIALING AND USING THE INFORMATION
THAT IS IN YOUR SLIDE SET. ALL SPEAKERS ENSURE YOU’RE USING WORKING MICROPHONE,
IDENTIFY YOURSELF BEFORE SPEAKING, IF I DIDN’T ACKNOWLEDGE YOU BY NAME BEFORE GIVING YOU
THE FLOOR, TURN MICROPHONES OFF WHEN NOT IN USE.
MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC WILL HAVE OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE COMMENT AT THE END OF EACH DAY.
PUBLIC COMMENTS ARE NOT A QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION BUT REPRESENT AN OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIVIDUALS
WHO WOULD LIKE TO MAKE A STATEMENT TO DO SO. IF YOU’D LIKE TO MAKE A PUBLIC COMMENT PLEASE
LIMIT YOUR SPOKEN COMMENT TO THREE MINUTES OR LESS, ALL WRITTEN COMMENTS LIMITED TO THREE
PAGES IN LENGTH. WRITTEN COMMENTS CAN BE SUBMITTED TO [email protected],
LIMITED TO 15 MINUTES OF PUBLIC COMMENT PER DAY.
AS A REMINDER, MEETING DATES INCLUDE JUNE 9 10, AND SEPTEMBER 23 24, 2020, MARK YOUR
CALENDARS. HIGHLIGHTS FROM OUR MEETING YESTERDAY, AFTER
AN UPDATE FROM DR. BECKHAM AND ADMIRAL GIROIR WE FOCUSED ON VACCINE INNOVATION AND IMPLEMENT
BEGINNING WITH PRESENTATION ON IMPLEMENTING EBOLA VACCINE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF
CONGO, MELODY BUTLER PROVIDED UPDATE ON WORK BY IMMUNIZATION EQUITY SUBCOMMITTEE, FOLLOWED
BY OUR WHAT’S OLD IS NEW PANEL DISCUSSION ON NEW RESEARCH IN TUBERCULOSIS VACCINE AND
ADMINISTRATION, MEASLES, INFECTION, MEMORY LOSS, AND USES FOR PLANTS, INSECTS, ANIMALS
IN VACCINE DEVELOPMENT. A NUMBER OF FASCINATING PRESENTATIONS ABOUT
THE 2019 CORONAVIRUS, AND DEVELOPMENT OF VACCINE, ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT RECENT EXECUTIVE ORDER
TO MOD HE WERIZE INFLUENZA VACCINES, AND WE CLOSED FOLLOWING PUBLIC COMMENT, JOHN DUNN’S
REVIEW OF THE WORK TO DATE OF THE VACCINE COMPETENCE SUBCOMMITTEE AND UPDATES FROM FEDERAL
AGENCIES AND LIAISON REPRESENTATIVES. TODAY WE WILL RECONVENE WITH COKE US ON VACCINE
COMPETENCE. ONLINE MISINFORMATION HAS EMERGED AS A MAJOR
THREAT TO VACCINE UPTAKE IN RECENT YEARS WE’LL BEGIN WITH PROMISING STRATEGIES TO REDUCE
ACCESS TO CREDIBLE ACCURATE VACCINE INFORMATION ONLINE.
IN THE AFTERNOON WE’LL HEAR FROM HAWAII’S DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INCLUDING, INCLUDING
HPV REQUIREMENT FOR SIXTH GRADERS, WE’LL HOLD A PANEL TO HIGHLIGHT POWERFUL POTENTIAL OF
STORY TELLING AS MEANS TO ENCOURAGE TIMELY VACCINATION.
THE DAY WILL CONCLUDE WITH PRESENTATION ON NEW CODING CHANGES FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF VACCINE
COUNSELING ADMINISTRATION, AS WELL AS PUBLIC COMMENT.
AT THIS TIME I’LL TURN TO OUR FIRST PRESENTATION OF THE DAY, PRESENTATIONS IS “VIEWS ON THE
VALUE OF VACCINES,” GALLUP POLLS SHIFTED OVER THE YEARS.
MR. R J REINHART FROM GALLUP WILL OUTLINE NEW POLLING DATA.
MR. REINHART, WELCOME, LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR TALK.>>GOOD MORNING AND WELCOME.
HAPPY VALENTINE’S DAY DAY. BEFORE I START, I’D LIKE TO APOLOGIZE.
THERE’S GOING TO BE A LOT OF NUMBERS THROWN AT YOU.
SORRY. THAT’S WHAT WE DO AT GALLUP, A LOT OF STATS.
SO, JUST BEFORE WE BEGIN, GO OVER THE SURVEY METHODS FOR THIS.
ALL THE QUESTIONS WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT TODAY ARE GOING TO COME FROM WHAT WE CALL
THE GALLUP POLL SOCIAL SERIES, GPSS, A MONTHLY SURVEY, DIFFERENT THEMES EACH MONTH.
WE HAVE DIFFERENT BATTERIES OF QUESTIONS ABOUT A VARIETY OF TOPICS THAT WE SORT OF SWAP IN
AND OUT ON A REGULAR OR SORT OF SEMI REGULAR BASIS WHICH IS REALLY WHERE THE VACCINE DATA
COMES FROM. THOSE SURVEYS TYPICALLY INVOLVE AT LEAST A
THOUSAND AMERICAN ADULTS, TELEPHONE SURVEYS, LAND LINE AND CELL PHONE.
THE MOST RECENT DATA WE’LL TALK ABOUT 2019 DATA COMES FROM GPSS CONDUCTED DECEMBER 2
15 OF LAST YEAR. ALL DATA HAS BEEN WEIGHTED TO REFLECT THE
DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY. IF YOU HAVE MORE QUESTIONS ABOUT THAT PLEASE
FEEL FREE TO ASK AT THE END. WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT SIX QUESTIONS, AMERICANS’
GENERAL VIEWS TO VACCINES AND LEVEL OF INFORMATION, OR SORT OF WHAT SORT OF INFORMATION THEY ARE
GETTING ABOUT THESE VACCINES. WE’RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT THOSE IN TERMS OF
OVERALL TRENDS, GENDER BREAKS, AGE GROUPS, EDUCATION, PARENTAL STATUS.
FIRST QUESTION HOW IMPORTANT IS IT THAT PARENTS GET THEIR CHILDREN VACCINATED?
WE HAVE SEVERAL DIFFERENT ANSWERS THAT WE HAVE OFFERED TO RESPONDENTS, EXTREMELY, VERY,
SOME WHAT IMPORTANT, OR NOT VERY IMPORTANT. TYPICALLY AT GALLUP WE LOOK AT TOP TWO BOXES,
WHICH ARE THOSE PEOPLE THAT SAY IT’S EXTREMELY IMPORTANT OR VERY IMPORTANT.
NOW, WE ASKED THIS QUESTION, IN 2001, 2015, AND 2019.
IN 2001, 94% OF AMERICANS SAID IT WAS EXTREMELY OR VERY IMPORTANT THAT CHILDREN BE VACCINATED.
THAT FELL 10 PERCENTAGE POINTS BY 2015 TO 84%.
AGAIN, IN 2019, IT WAS STILL AT 84%. THAT DECLINE, BECAUSE WE’RE PRIMARILY GOING
TO LOOK BETWEEN 2001 AND 2019, WAS AMONG MOST SUBGROUPS OF AMERICAN SOCIETY.
JUST TO GO OVER SOME OF THE MORE SIGNIFICANT DECLINES, MORE IMPORTANT DECLINES BETWEEN
2001 AND 2019, PERHAPS MOST DISTURBINGLY, OR MOST SORT OF CALLING OUT FOR ACTION, IS
THERE WAS A 15 PERCENTAGE POINT DROP AMONG THOSE AMERICANS WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE
OF 18. WENT FROM 92% OF THAT GROUP SAYING THAT GETTING
CHILDREN VACCINATED WAS IMPORTANT OR EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO 77% IN 2019.
IN OTHER AREAS AMONG AMERICANS WITH SOME COLLEGE EDUCATION, THAT PERCENTAGE WENT FROM 93% TO
77%. FOR YOUNG AMERICANS, THOSE AGE 18 TO 29, A
DROP FROM 94% TO 83%. AND FOR THOSE AGE 30 TO 49, DROPPED FROM 92%
TO 80%. ONLY AMONG THOSE AMERICANS WITH A POST GRADUATE
EDUCATION WAS THERE NOT A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DROP IN THE PERCENTAGE THAT SAID VACCINES
WERE GETTING CHILDREN VACCINATED WAS EXTREMELY OR VERY IMPORTANT.
SECOND QUESTION, THIS TALKS ABOUT WHAT ARE PEOPLE HEARING ABOUT VACCINES, HOW MUCH YOU
PERSONALLY HAVE HEARD ABOUT THE ADVANTAGES OF VACCINATIONS FOR CHILDREN.
AGAIN, OPTIONS WE OFFERED RESPONDENTS, A GREAT DEAL, FAIR AMOUNT, ONLY A LITTLE, OR NOTHING
AT ALL. AGAIN, LOOKING AT THAT TOP TWO BOXES.
THIS WAS ACTUALLY ASKED OF HALF THE SAMPLE, THE REST SORRY, MOST OF THE QUESTION WAS THE
WHOLE SAMPLE BUT THIS AND THE FOLLOWING QUESTION WERE ASKED OF HALF SAMPLE.
WE SAW OVERALL 89% OF PERSONS HAD HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE BENEFITS
OF VACCINATING CHILDREN. THIS IS IN SOME WAYS SHOWS IF YOU LOOK AT
THE TREND, IT DOES SHOW A VICTORY OR SUCCESS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCATES BECAUSE IN 2001,
73% OF AMERICANS SAID THEY HAD HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF
VACCINES. THAT CLIMBED TO 83% IN 2015, FINALLY 89% AS
I SAID THIS YEAR. THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF AMERICANS WHO ARE
LIKELY TO SAY THEY HAVE HEARD THOSE BENEFITS ARE THOSE WITH HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION.
PARTICULARLY AMONG THOSE WITH A GRADUATE DEGREE OR HIGHER, 94% SAY THEY’VE HEARD ABOUT BENEFITS,
AND AMONG THOSE WITH UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE, AGAIN, 94% SAY THEY’VE HEARD A GREAT DEAL
OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF VACCINATION. CONVERSELY, FOR THOSE WITH A HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION
OR LESS, MUCH LOWER IN TERMS OF WHAT YOU WOULD WHAT THEY SAY THEY’VE HEARD ABOUT BENEFITS
OF VACCINATION. 83% SAY THEY’VE HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR
AMOUNT. IN THIS AREA, PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCATES ARE
DOING A GOOD JOB OF GETTING TO PARENTS. 91% OF AMERICANS WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE
OF 18 SAY THEY’VE NOW HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF VACCINATION.
AND THAT’S UP FROM 78% IN 2001. INTERESTINGLY, PERHAPS A BIT OF A WARNING
FOR THE FUTURE, FOR ALL AGE GROUPS EXCEPT FOR THOSE UNDER EXCEPT FOR THOSE AGE 18 29,
90% OR MORE SAY THEY’VE HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF VACCINATION.
80% OF THOSE AMERICANS AGE 18 TO 29 HAVE HEARD THE SAME.
I’M GOING TO TALK ABOUT THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN.
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU PERSONALLY HEARD ABOUT THE POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF VACCINATIONS FOR
CHILDREN? AGAIN, REALLY GOING TO TALK ABOUT TOP TWO
BOXES A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT. NOW, UNFORTUNATELY, WHILE PEOPLE ARE CLEARLY
HEARING MORE ABOUT THE ADVANTAGES, THEY ARE ALSO HEARING MORE ABOUT THE DISADVANTAGES
OF VACCINE FOR CHILDREN, VACCINATING CHILDREN. IN 2001, 39% OF AMERICANS SAY THEY HEARD A
GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE QUOTE/UNQUOTE POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF VACCINATION.
IN 2019, THAT HAD CLIMBED TO 79%. WE ALL KNOW THE INTERNET IS A MAJOR SOURCE
OF ANTI VACCINATION INFORMATION. JUST TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA ABOUT DURING THE
SAME TIME GALLUP WASN’T ASKING ABOUT INTERNET ACCESS IN 2001.
BUT THE PEW DATA AT THAT TIME SAID 55% OF AMERICANS HAD ACCESS TO THE INTERNET.
GALLUP’S LATEST NUMBERS FROM THE GALLUP POLL FOR 2019 NOW SAYS 94% OF AMERICANS HAVE ACCESS
TO THE INTERNET. SO YOU’RE SEEING GROWTH OF INTERNET ACCESS,
COINCIDING WITH GROWTH IN VIEWS OF DISADVANTAGE OF VACCINATION INFORMATION.
NOW, AGAIN, LOOKING AT PARENTS, YOU SEE SOME VERY SORT OF POTENTIALLY DISTURBING NUMBERS
FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCATES. IN 2001, 48% OF PARENTS WITH CHILDREN UNDER
18 SAY THEY HAD HEARD A GREAT DEAL OR FAIR AMOUNT ABOUT THE POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF
VACCINATIONS. IN 2019, THAT ROSE TO 86%.
AMONG AMERICANS AGE 18 TO 29, IN 2001, 42% SAY THEY HEARD A GREAT DEAL ABOUT THE DISADVANTAGES
OF VACCINATIONS, THAT CLIMBED TO 76% IN 2019. AMONG THOSE AGE 65 OR OLDER, 28% SAID THEY
HAD HEARD ABOUT THE DISADVANTAGES OF VACCINATIONS. THAT CLIMBED AGAIN TO 76% IN 2019.
INTERESTINGLY, POST GRADUATES, AMERICANS WITH POST GRADUATE DEGREES ARE MOST LIKELY TO HAVE
HAD HEARD ABOUT DISADVANTAGES, 94% HEARD ABOUT ADVANTAGES, 88% SAY THEY HAVE HEARD ABOUT
THE DISADVANTAGES FOR VACCINATIONS. ONCE YOU LOOK DONE AMONG THOSE WITH SOME COLLEGE,
74% HEARD ABOUT DISADVANTAGES, HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION OR LOWER, 76% SAY THE SAME.
DO YOU THINK VACCINES ARE MORE DANGEROUS THAN DISEASES THAT THEY ARE DESIGNED TO PROTECT,
PREVENT OR NOT, ASKED OF FULL SAMPLE, ASKED IN 2001, 2015, AND 2019.
CURRENTLY, 86% OF AMERICANS SAY NO, VACCINES ARE NOT MORE DANGEROUS THAN DISEASES THEY
ARE DESIGNED TO PREVENT. 11% SAY THEY ARE.
THAT 11% IS UP FROM 6% IN 2001. WE PULL UP PARTICULARLY POTENTIALLY TROUBLING
NUMBERS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCATES. 16% OF AMERICANS WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE
OF 18 NOW SAY VACCINES ARE MORE DANGEROUS THAN THE DISEASES THEY ARE INTENDED TO PREVENT.
THAT IS A 10 PERCENTAGE POINT RISE FROM 2001 WHEN 6% SAID THE SAME. ADDITIONALLY, AMONG THOSE AMERICANS THAT HAVE
SOME COLLEGE EDUCATION BUT NOT UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE, 15% SAY VACCINES ARE MORE DANGEROUS
THAN THE DISEASES THEY WERE INTENDED TO PREVENT, UP FROM 4% IN 2001.
WE ALSO SAW 7 POINT INCREASE IN THOSE WHO SAY VACCINES ARE MORE DANGEROUS AMONG THOSE
18 TO 29, 8 POINT INCREASE AMONG 30 TO 49, 7 POINT INCREASE AMONG THOSE AGE 50 TO 64.
ONLY AMONG THOSE AMERICANS AGE 65 OR OLDER, THOSE WITH POST GRADATE OR UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE
NO STATISTICALLY DIFFERENT PERCEPTION IN THE SAFETY OF VACCINES.
AN INTERESTING QUESTION GETS AT UNCERTAINTY SOME AMERICANS CLEARLY HAVE ABOUT VACCINES.
THIS IS A QUESTION OF FROM WHAT YOU HAVE READ OR HEARD, DO YOU PERSONALLY THINK CERTAIN
VACCINES DO OR DO NOT CAUSE AUTISM IN CHILDREN, OR ARE YOU UNSURE?
THIS IS ASKED OF THE FULL SAMPLE. WE ASKED IT TWICE.
IN 2015 AND 2019. WHAT YOU SEE HERE AGAIN THE TREND ISN’T SO
MUCH INTERESTING AS WHAT THE ACTUAL RESPONSES ARE.
THOSE THAT SAY YES, THERE WAS MODEST INCREASE FROM 6% IN 2015 TO 10% IN 2019.
ON THE NO, THERE WAS ALSO MODEST INCREASE, 41% IN 2019, TO 45%, SORRY (INDISCERNIBLE)
UNSURE IF VACCINES CAUSED AUTISM, 46% STILL SAY THAT IN 2019.
SO, AGAIN, NEARLY HALF OF AMERICANS ARE SAYING THEY ARE UNSURE IF VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM.
INTERESTINGLY, YOU CAN CLEARLY SEE A REAL CORRELATION BETWEEN EDUCATION LEVELS AND CERTAINTY
OR UNCERTAINTY ABOUT VACCINES. HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA OR LESS 60% WERE UNSURE
IF VACCINES CAUSED AUTISM, A SLIGHT CHANGE FROM 64% WHO SAID THE SAME IN 2015.
AMONG AMERICANS 50 TO 64, 55% SAID THEY WERE UNSURE IF VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM.
49% UNSURE, SOME COLLEGE EDUCATION AGAIN 47% SAY THEY WERE UNSURE, AND THOSE WITHOUT CHILDREN
HAD SIMILAR LEVELS AT 46% OF UNCERTAINTY ABOUT VACCINES.
THE FINAL QUESTION WE ASKED PARTICULARLY ABOUT VACCINE ATTITUDES IN THE U.S. IS DO YOU THINK
THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD REQUIRE ALL PARENTS TO HAVE THEIR CHILDREN VACCINATED AGAINST
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES SUCH AS MEASLES, OR DO YOU THINK THAT’S SOMETHING THE GOVERNMENT
SHOULD STAY OUT OF? THIS WAS AGAIN ASKED OF THE FULL SAMPLE.
GALLUP FIRST ASKED THIS IN 2019, THE QUESTION WAS PREVIOUSLY ASKED IN 1991 BY PRINCETON
SURVEY RESEARCH COMPANY, AND AT THAT TIME 81% OF AMERICANS SAID YES, THE GOVERNMENT
SHOULD REQUIRE VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.
TODAY, THAT NUMBER HAS FALLEN TO 62%. AMONG THOSE WHO SAID GOVERNMENT SHOULD REQUIRE
VACCINATIONS ARE THOSE AMERICANS WITH SOME COLLEGE EDUCATION, 52% SAY THE GOVERNMENT
SHOULD REQUIRE VACCINATION. AMONG YOUNGER AMERICANS THOSE AGE 18 TO 29,
57%. 57% AMONG 30 TO 49, AND AMONG PARENTS WITH
CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 18, 58% SAY THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD REQUIRE VACCINATION.
THE MOST LIKELY TO SAY THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD REQUIRE VACCINATION ARE OLDER AMERICANS, FOR
THOSE 50 TO 64, 66% SAY VACCINATION SHOULD BE REQUIRED, AMONG THOSE 65+, 68% SAY VACCINATION
SHOULD BE REQUIRED. ALSO, THOSE WITH HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION
ARE ALSO MUCH MORE LIKELY TO SAY VACCINATION SHOULD BE REQUIRED.
AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES, 68% SAY VACCINATION SHOULD BE REQUIRED.
AND THAT NUMBER JUMPS TO 72% FOR THOSE WITH GRADUATE DEGREES OR HIGHER.
THAT REALLY COVERS MOST OF OUR MOST RECENT DATA ABOUT AMERICANS’ ATTITUDES ABOUT VACCINATION,
BUT JUST TO GIVE YOU ALL ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND POINT YOU TO THE RECENT REPORT RELEASED
AS PART OF THE WELLCOME GLOBAL MONITOR SURVEY, THAT WAS ACTUALLY CONDUCTED IN 2018, SURVEY
BY GALLUP, REPORT RELEASED IN JUNE OF 2019, 140 COUNTRIES.
ON AGGREGATE, 79% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION STRONGLY OR SOMEWHAT AGREES VACCINES ARE SAFE,
ONE OF THE KEY COMPONENTS OF THE STUDY. IN THE U.S., WELLCOME SURVEY FOUND 72% OF
AMERICANS STRONGLY OR SOMEWHAT AGREED VACCINES WERE SAFE, 17% DISAGREED, 11% SOMEWHAT OR
STRONGLY DISAGREE. ADDITIONALLY IN THE U.S. 87% AGREE IT’S IMPORTANT
TO VACCINATE CHILDREN, AND 84% SAID VACCINES WERE EFFECTIVE.
THE LOWS AROUND THE WORLD YOUR VAIN HAD THE LOWEST AGREEMENT VACCINES WERE SAFE, 29% OF
THE POPULATION AGREED VACCINES WERE SAFE IN THE UKRAINE.
AND FRANCE HAD THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF DISAGREEMENT THAT VACCINES WERE SAFE, WITH 33% OR A THIRD
OF THE POPULATION SAYING VACCINES WERE NOT SAFE.
JUST TO REALLY GO BACK OVER WHAT WE FOUND IN GENERAL, THOSE AMERICANS WITH HIGHER LEVELS
OF EDUCATION, PARTICULARLY WITH UNDERGRADUATE OR GRADUATE DEGREE, AND OLDER AMERICANS, 50
TO 64 OR 65+ TEND TO BE MORE POSITIVE ABOUT VACCINES IN GENERAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
ADDITIONALLY, JUST TO PULL YOUR ATTENTION BACK TO THOSE TWO QUESTIONS WE ASKED ABOUT
THE ADVANTAGES OR DISADVANTAGES OF VACCINES, WE KNOW BOTH NUMBERS ARE RISING BUT THAT THAT
DISADVANTAGE, THOSE AMERICAN OF AMERICANS THAT SAY THEY KNOW MORE ABOUT THE DISADVANTAGES
HAS RISEN FASTER THAN THOSE WHO KNOW ABOUT THE ADVANTAGES.
AGAIN, SETTING UP A POTENTIAL CHALLENGE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCATES IN THE UNITED STATES.
JUST TO DIRECT YOU, IF YOU WANT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, DIRECT YOU TO THE ARTICLE ABOUT
THE FINDINGS, TOP LINE INFORMATION ALSO THE GALLUP WELLCOME GLOBAL MONITOR OR EMAIL MYSELF
OR MY COLLEAGUE CHRISTIAN ARCHER. NOW QUESTIONS.
>>THANK YOU, MR. REINHART. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU.
GREAT PRESENTATION, SCARY TO TELL YOU THE TRUTH.
DO YOU HAVE ANY WAY OF TELLING IF THERE’S REGIONAL DIFFERENCES?
>>UNFORTUNATELY, THE SMALL SAMPLE SIZE KIND OF REALLY PROHIBITS US FROM REALLY DIGGING
IN TOO MUCH INTO THE REGIONS SO I CAN’T TELL YOU THAT.
I CAN’T ANSWER THAT.>>ANY OTHER COMMENTS?
TROY IN.>>ANY SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS EITHER?
>>IT’S MIXED, HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH EDUCATION, SO THOSE INDIVIDUALS WITH LOWER LEVELS OF
EDUCATION TEND TO HAVE LOWER LEVELS OF INCOME, SO, AGAIN, LOW LEVELS OF INCOME TEND TO MEAN
LESS POSITIVE VIEWS OF VACCINES.>>ANY COMMENTS OR QUESTIONS FROM THE COMMITTEE
MEMBERS ON THE PHONE? OTHERS IN THE ROOM?
>>IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION PRESS STAR 1, UNMUTE YOUR PHONE AND RECORD YOUR NAME.
ONE MOMENT PLEASE.>>RACE AND ETHNICITY?
>>AGAIN, WE DO HAVE ENOUGH TO BREAK IT DOWN INTO WHITE AND NON WHITE, AND IN GENERAL WHITE
AMERICANS TEND TO HAVE HIGHER LEVELS OF POSITIVE VIEWS ON VACCINES THAN NON WHITE AMERICANS.
>>MARY ANNE?>>THANKS FOR THE PRESENTATION.
SIMPLIFY, YOU HAVE ENORMOUS OPPORTUNITY TO SURVEY LARGER GROUP OF AMERICANS AND THIS
SEEMS LIKE SUCH A SMALL SAMPLE, ALTHOUGH I BELIEVE THE DATA IS VERY SOUND.
>>THAT’S BASICALLY WHAT THE GPSS IS. UNFORTUNATELY, DOING SURVEYING IS INCREDIBLY
EXPENSIVE, AND THERE ARE COST PROHIBITIONS FOR LARGER SAMPLE SIZES.
>>LARRY?>>ALSO JUST TO SHOUT OUT IF ANYONE IS WILLING
TO PAY FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH WE’RE MORE THAN HAPPY TO DO THAT.
>>I SEE YOU LOOKING AT ME.>>YEAH, THE CHECK’S IN THE MAIL.
COULD YOU REMIND US, PARENTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHILDREN?
>>ANY SPECIFIC NUMBER OR JUST IN GENERAL?>>JUST IN GENERAL.
>>SAMPLE SIZES I DO NOT HAVE IN FRONT OF ME BUT AGAIN THERE WAS I WANT TO SAY APPROXIMATELY
700 WITHOUT CHILDREN AND 300 OR MORE WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 18.
IN GENERAL, JUST IN TERMS OF THE PERCENTAGES THAT SAY HAVING CHILDREN VACCINATED IS IMPORTANT
IT IS NOW 77% OF AMERICANS WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 18 SAY THAT IT IS IMPORTANT.
GO BACK TO THAT SLIDE, YEAH. AND THOSE WITHOUT CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF
18, IT’S 87%.>>DEBRA?
>>IT’S INTERESTING I THINK OF ANTI VACCINE MOVEMENT AS BEING LARGELY EDUCATED MIDDLE
CLASS PEOPLE SO I’M JUST WONDERING ABOUT THAT, NOT THAT I EXPECT YOU TO THE ANSWER BUT MAYBE
THERE’S JUST ENOUGH PEOPLE WHO DON’T HAVE A POSITIVE ATTITUDE WHO DON’T VACCINATE ARE
VERY VOCAL.>>AGAIN, I’M NOT GOING TO LIE THESE RESULTS
ARE SURPRISING BECAUSE WE HAVE THE VIEW IT’S A MORE EDUCATED, YOU KNOW, MIDDLE CLASS, UPPER
CLASS ANTI VAX MOVEMENT BUT THAT’S NOT NECESSARILY THE CASE.
>>THANK YOU, MR. REINHART, WE APPRECIATE YOUR TIME.
NEXT PANEL WILL BE INOCULATING AGAINST MISINFORMATION ON THE INTERNET.
I’D LIKE TO ASK PANELISTS IN THE ROOM TO PLEASE COME TO THE STAGE.
IN SUPPORT OF THE SUBGROUP OF THE COMMITTEE THIS PANEL WAS DEVELOPED TO EXPLORE MISINFORMATION
ABOUT VACCINES AND VACCINATION, AND WAYS MEDIA CAN BE USED TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO CREDIBLE
AND ACCURATE VACCINE INFORMATION, AND ENCOURAGE EVIDENCE BASED DECISION MAKING.
FIRST SPEAKER WILL BE DR. NIAM YARAGHI FROM BROOKINGS INSTITUTION, PROVIDING AN OVERVIEW
OF WAYS TO COMBAT MISINFORMATION ON DIGITAL PLATFORMS FOLLOWED BY ISABELLE SAHINOVIC,
FROM WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ON THE PHONE, HIGHLIGHTING VACCINE SAFETY NET PROJECT THAT
PROVIDES RELIABLE INFORMATION ON VACCINE SAFETY, FOLLOWED BY LAUREN CULBERSON FROM TWITTER
DISCUSSING NEW SEARCH STRATEGIES AND THEIR PLATFORM AND ANA SANTOS RUTSCHMAN FROM ST.
LOUIS UNIVERSITY, STRATEGIES TO LEGALLY RESPOND TO MISINFORMATION ONLINE.
THANK YOU ALL FOR JOINING US.>>GOOD MORNING, EVERYBODY.
I’M NIAM YARAGHI, WITH THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION. TODAY I’M GOING TO TALK ABOUT WHETHER WE SHOULD
FIGHT MISINFORMATION ON SOCIAL MEDIA AND IF SO, HOW.
I THINK THE PREVIOUS PRESENTATION WAS A FABULOUS SEGUE TO MY PRESENTATION BECAUSE THE PRESENTER
MENTIONED THE ROLE OF INTERNET AND RISE OF USE OF INTERNET AND CORRELATION WITH VIEWS
OF AMERICANS ABOUT VACCINES. BEFORE ANSWERING THAT QUESTION WE SHOULD FIRST
ASK OURSELVES WHAT ARE SOCIAL MEDIA, AND AS FAMOUS GREEK PHILOSOPHER SAID, BASICALLY,
IT DEPENDS. AND IT DEPENDS ON HOW WE VIEW THE ROLE OF
SOCIAL MEDIA. MOST OF THESE PLATFORMS STARTED AS DISTRIBUTORS
OF CONTENT. THEY ARE FIGURATIVE, BLANK PAGES THAT ANYBODY
CAN COME AND WRITE ANYTHING ON THEM. IF YOU VIEW THEM LIKE THAT, THEN NATURALLY
YOU CANNOT HOLD THEM RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENT THAT IS BEING DISTRIBUTED ON THEIR PLATFORMS,
AND THIS WAS HOW THEY STARTED. HOWEVER, THEY ARE BECOMING MORE LIKE PUBLISHERS
OF CONTENT, FOR VARIOUS REASONS. THE VERY FIRST ONE IS THAT THEY HAVE DEVELOPED
EDITORIAL CAPABILITIES AND PRIVILEGES. YOU CAN SEE ON SOCIAL MEDIA THAT THEY ARE
IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS THAT CAN CENSOR SPECIAL TYPES OF CONTENT OR PROMOTE SOME OTHER TYPES
OF CONTENT. THEY ARE ALSO BECOMING MAIN SOURCES OF NEWS
FOR THEIR USERS, SOME PHENOMENON I THINK IS RISING, I AM A GOOD EXAMPLE OF THAT AS A NEW
PARENT, I DO NOT HAVE TIME TO WATCH THAT MUCH CABLE TV THAT I COULD, AND I ONLY RELY ON
MY CELL PHONE AND MY TWITTER ACCOUNT TO SEE WHAT IS GOING ON, AND I THINK AS AN EXAMPLE,
TWITTER, FOR EXAMPLE, UNDERSTANDS IT VERY WELL BECAUSE THEY HAVE DEVELOPED SPECIAL INTERFACES
FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE AFTER NEWS. WHEN YOU CLICK ON EXPLORE AND IT SHOWS YOU
WHAT IS HAPPENING RIGHT NOW AND ALSO GIVES DISTILLED VERSION OF THE STORIES THAT ARE
HAPPENING, IT SHOWS THESE PLATFORMS THEMSELVES UNDERSTAND IMPORTANT ROLE THAT THEY HAVE FOR
USERS AS MAIN SOURCES OF INFORMATION. ANOTHER REASON THAT THEY HAVE BECOME SOURCES
OF NEWS IS THAT THERE ARE VARIOUS EXAMPLES OF VERY IMPORTANT NEWS THAT BREAK A THESE
PLATFORMS SO YOU WILL BE MUCH MORE LIKELY TO LEARN ABOUT SOMETHING IMPORTANT IF YOU’RE
REGULARLY ON TWITTER THAN REGULARLY READ THE “NEW YORK TIMES.”
THE PRESIDENT MAY TWEET SOMETHING VERY IMPORTANT THAT NO OTHER NEWS AGENCY WILL HAVE SOURCES
ABOUT IT. AND THE OTHER SIMILARITY BETWEEN THESE PLATFORMS
AND TRADITIONAL PUBLISHERS OF NEWS IS THAT THESE PLATFORMS CAN VERY EASILY GIVE CREDIBILITY
TO INDIVIDUALS. THE BLUE CHECK MARK IN FRONT OF YOUR USER
HANDLE ON TWITTER GIVES A CERTAIN WEIGHT TO WHAT YOU ARE SAYING, JUST LIKE BEING A “NEW
YORK TIMES” JOURNALIST GIVES THAT WEIGHT TO WHAT YOU’RE CLAIMING.
NOW, I THINK ALTHOUGH THESE PLATFORMS ARE BECOMING EERILY SIMILAR TO TRADITIONAL PUBLISHERS
OF NEWS, WE REALLY CANNOT HOLD THEM TO THE SAME STANDARDS YESTERDAY.
THE VERY FIRST AND SIMPLEST REASON IS DUE TO THE SHEER VOLUME OF CONTENT THAT IS BEING
PUBLISHED IN THESE PLATFORMS, TAKE TWITTER AS AN EXAMPLE, LAST TIME I CALCULATED THE
VOLUME OF THE TWEETS THAT ARE PUBLISHED IN JUST ONE SINGLE DAY ON TWITTER IS EQUAL TO
183 YEARS OF “NEW YORK TIMES.” SO IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO IMAGINE THAT TWITTER
CAN HAVE AN EDITORIAL BOARD IN ORDER TO SEE, OKAY, WHAT IS MISINFORMATION AND WHAT IS NOT
MISINFORMATION. THE VERY FIRST SOLUTION THAT COMES TO MIND
IS HOW ABOUT A.I. AND MACHINE LEARNING, CAN WE USE THAT AND CAN THAT BE HELPFUL OR NOT?
WELL, I THINK MOST PEOPLE THINK OF A.I. AS A MAGIC WAND THAT YOU CAN USE TO SOLVE ALL
THE PROBLEMS AND THESE ARE THE COMPUTERS MACHINES SUPERIOR TO HUMANS AND CAN SOLVE EVERY PROBLEM
WE CANNOT. I’M SORRY TO INFORM YOU THAT MAY NOT BE THE
BEST SOLUTION BECAUSE THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION THAT THESE ALGORITHMS WORK BASED ON IS THAT
THE PAST CAN PREDICT THE FUTURE, MEANING THAT THE TYPES OF CONTENT AND TONE OF THE CONTENT
WILL NOT CHANGE, SO IF THE MACHINE LEARNS SOMETHING BY OBSERVING THE PAST, IT CAN USE
THAT KNOWLEDGE TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT THE TWEETS OR THE, YOU KNOW, BLOG POST OR FACEBOOK
POST IN FUTURE, BUT BECAUSE THESE TYPES AND TONE OF THE CONTENT CHANGES SO RAPIDLY, THEN
THE MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS MAY NOT BE AS SUCCESSFUL AS YOU EXPECT THEM TO BE, AND
THE OTHER REASON IS IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY MISINFORMATION, ESPECIALLY IF THAT
KIND OF MISINFORMATION WAS CRAFTED WITH SOME THOUGHT.
ONE OTHER, YOU KNOW, NEWS THAT WE HEAR EVERY DAY IS THAT, YOU KNOW, RANSOMWARE ATTACKS
WITH ON THE RISE, ALL THESE ATTACKS START WITH A PHISHING E MAIL.
AND ONE OF THE INTERESTING THINGS THAT I LEARNED IS THAT NOW WE HAVE RANSOMWARE THAT YOU CAN
BUY OFF THE SHELF, MEANING THAT YOU AS A PERSON WHO IS VERY FAMILIAR WITH THE INSTITUTION
CAN CRAFT A VERY NICE E MAIL THAT WOULD BE VERY PERSUASIVE FOR YOUR POTENTIALLY EVEN
YOUR COLLEAGUES TO GO CLICK ON THAT, AS SOON AS THEY CLICK ON THE LINK IT’S DONE.
AND IT HAS CREATED A BIG CHALLENGE FOR SECURITY COMPANIES AND, YOU KNOW, COMPANIES IN GENERAL
BECAUSE IT IS NOT AS EASY TO DETECT PHISHING EMAIL AS IT WAS BACK THEN A NIGERIAN PRINCE
WANTED YOUR BANK ACCOUNT TO DELIVER YOU MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.
IT IS GOING TO BE VERY EXPENSIVE, IT’S NOT THAT EASY, AND EVEN IF SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS
DEVELOP THE TECHNOLOGY AND CAPABILITY TO BE ABLE TOP FILTER EVERY SINGLE PIECE OF CONTENT
PUBLISHED ON THEIR PLATFORMS, I DON’T THINK IT’S THE BEST POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DECISION
THAT THEY COULD MAKE FOR THE REASONS I’M GOING TO TALK ABOUT.
VERY FIRST ONE IS THAT WE’RE GOING TO CHOOSE OUR BATTLES WISELY.
WE DON’T WANT TO WIN A BATTLE BUT LOSE THE WAR, MEANING THAT THERE ARE SO MANY DIFFERENT
AREAS OF MISINFORMATION THAT FOCUSING ON ALL OF THEM REALLY IS GOING TO BE DISTRACTING.
I WILL GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. THERE ARE TWO GROUPS OF PEOPLE, ONE GROUP
ARE ANTI VAXERS, THE OTHERS ARE FLAT EARTHERS, BOTH EQUALLY WRONG, BOTH ARE EQUALLY EXCITED
TO DISSEMINATE WHAT THEY THINK IS TRUE ON EVERY PLATFORM THAT THEY CAN.
HOWEVER, THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MISINFORMATION, DISSEMINATED BY ANTI VAXERS IS VASTLY MORE
TROUBLESOME THAN THE MISINFORMATION OF SOMEBODY WHO BELIEVES THE EARTH IS FLAT.
IF I DO BELIEVE THAT THE EARTH IS FLAT, WELL, YOU CAN HAVE A NICE LAUGH AT ME AT THE BAR.
BUT IF I BELIEVE THAT VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM, THEN IT MAY PUSH YOU TO, YOU KNOW, THINK ABOUT
IT AND YOU MAY HESITATE TO VACCINATE YOUR CHILD THE NEXT TIME.
SO THE CONSEQUENCES ARE VERY IMPORTANT, AND I THINK, WELL, MAYBE WE CAN ALLOW FLAT EARTHERS
TO HAVE THEIR DAY ON TWITTER BUT MAYBE WHEN IT COMES TO VACCINES WE HAVE TO BE MORE CAUTIOUS.
AND I THINK BECAUSE OF THAT, DUE TO THE FACT THAT TOPICS OF MISINFORMATION VARY OVER TIME,
AND DUE TO THE FACT THAT THEY HAVE DIFFERENT CONSEQUENCES, IT WOULD BE BEST IF WE COULD
CREATE HUMAN EXPERT PANELS TO DECIDE WHAT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TOPICS RIGHT NOW FOR
US TO PUT ON THE TOP OF THE LIST OF OUR FIGHT AGAINST MISINFORMATION, AND ONLY FOCUS ON
THEM. AGAIN, YOU KNOW, RIGHT NOW WE’RE ALSO DEALING
WITH THE OUTBREAK OF CORONAVIRUS. MAYBE IT IS POLITICALLY AND EVEN FROM NATIONAL
SECURITY STANDPOINT MORE IMPORTANT TO FIGHT MISINFORMATION ABOUT CORONAVIRUS BECAUSE IT
MAY LEAD TO, SAY, PUBLIC PANIC WHEREAS INFORMATION ABOUT VACCINES IS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS, THE
VERY FIRST THING THAT WE KNOW IS THAT IT MAY NOT LEAD TO PUBLIC PANIC IN THE SHORT TERM
AT LEAST. SO PRIORITIZING THESE AREAS I THINK WOULD
BE VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEN THESE PLATFORMS CAN FOCUS THEIR RESOURCES ON FIGHTING EXACTLY
THOSE THAT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES. AND ONE OTHER REASON THAT WE HAVE TO FOCUS
ON A CERTAIN LIMITED SET OF PRIORITIES IS BECAUSE WE DO NOT WANT TO CREATE MARTYRS ONLINE
WHO WILL GO AND BE HEROES OFFLINE. WE OFTEN FORGET THAT THERE ARE OTHER SOURCES
OF DISSEMINATING FALSE INFORMATION, AND THEY ARE NOT ALL ONLINE.
OFFLINE CHANNELS ARE STILL OUT THERE AND IN MANY CASES THEY ARE EQUALLY STRONG IF NOT
STRONGER THAN ONLINE SOURCES, RADIO SHOWS, PODCASTS, BLOG POSTS, AND EVEN, YOU KNOW,
SENDING MAIL ARE IMPORTANT WAYS THAT PEOPLE ARE DISTRIBUTING THIS KIND OF MISINFORMATION,
AND IN CASE OF VACCINES ACTUALLY IT WAS VERY INTERESTING THE PREVIOUS PRESENTER IS SHOWING
HOW THE ATTITUDES OF AMERICANS HAVE CHANGED, BETWEEN 2001, 2015, AND 2019, AND THE MOST
INTERESTING PART OF IT WAS THERE WAS A BIG CHANGE BETWEEN 2001 AND 2015, BUT BETWEEN
2015 AND 2019 THE ATTITUDES DID NOT CHANGE THAT MUCH, DESPITE THE FACT THAT IS EXACTLY
PERIOD THAT SOCIAL MEDIA WERE ON THE RISE. SO I DO AGREE THAT THERE IS A LOT OF MISINFORMATION
ON SOCIAL MEDIA ABOUT VACCINES AND OTHER TOPICS. HOWEVER, WE ALSO HAVE TO AGREE THAT THERE
IS A LOT OF CORRECT GOOD INFORMATION ABOUT THESE SUBJECTS AS WELL.
SO, WHILE THEY MAY POTENTIALLY LEAD TO MISINFORMED INDIVIDUALS, THEY AT THE SAME TIME CAN HELP
A PERSON WHO OTHERWISE WOULD ONLY AREA ABOUT THIS MISINFORMATION THROUGH THEIR SOCIAL CIRCLES,
TO HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR ABOUT THE BENEFITS, AND DEBUNKING OF THE MYTHS ON TWITTER, ON
FACEBOOK, ON GOOGLE, ON YouTube, AND THEY VERY WELL WILL HELP PEOPLE TO FORM AN INFORMED
OPINION. SO I THINK THEY ARE A DOUBLE EDGED SWORD,
AND THEY CAN HAVE BOTH BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES, AND THERE ARE MULTIPLE STRATEGIES THAT THESE
PLATFORMS HAVE ADOPTED. PINTEREST, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS DECIDED TO COMPLETELY
BAN ANY KIND OF CONTENT THAT IS ANTI VACCINES, WHEREAS ON YouTube, FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU
WATCH VIDEOS OF PEOPLE THAT ARE TALKING ABOUT THEIR BELIEF THAT VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM, YOU
WILL SEE THAT THERE IS A VERY SHORT DESCRIPTION THAT SAYS THIS IS AN ANTI VACCINE CONTENT
AND IT’S BEEN DEBUNKED, SCIENTIFICALLY, MANY, MANY TIMES, AND IF YOU’RE INTERESTED YOU CAN
CLICK ON THESE OTHER VIDEOS WHOM YOU CAN LEARN ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF VACCINES, AND THERE
IS ALSO A BUNCH OF WIKIPEDIA LINKS IF YOU’RE INTERESTED YOU CAN GO AND READ ABOUT THEM.
AND IF YOU ARE AWARE OF HOW THESE, YOU KNOW, RECOMMENDATION ALGORITHMS WORK, YOU WILL KNOW
ABOUT THEIR STRENGTH AND POWER. THEY CAN REALLY CHANGE YOUR OPINION.
SO I THINK IF I WAS TALKING OFFLINE, IF I WAS LISTENING TO A RADIO SHOW THAT HAD A GUEST
WHO WAS CLAIMING THAT AFTER HE OR SHE VACCINATED THEIR CHILD, THE CHILD DEVELOPED AUTISM, AND
I AS A NEW PARENT BECOME REALLY WORRIED, THEN IF I GO ONLINE AND SEARCH VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM
ON YouTube AND WATCH A VIDEO THERE WILL BE TEN THAT DEBUNK THE VIDEO SO THEY ARE GOING
TO LEAD ME TO THE CORRECT AND RIGHT INFORMATION. AND WILL YOU KNOW, RELAX ME FIRST OF ALL SO
NEXT TIME I GO TO THE PEDIATRICIAN I WILL BE MUCH MORE WILLING TO HAVE MY CHILD VACCINATED,
AND CREATE AN OPPORTUNITY THAT OTHERWISE WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN OUT THERE BECAUSE NOW THAT THEY
THE PEOPLE GIVING ME ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF INFORMATION, AND IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE
THAT WE HAVE TO CREATE A PLATFORM IN WHICH PEOPLE REALLY TRUST AND, YOU KNOW, GOING OUT
AND CENSORING EVERYTHING THAT WE DEEM INAPPROPRIATE WILL HURT THAT KIND OF BELIEF THAT PEOPLE
HAVE BECAUSE PEOPLE USUALLY TEND TO BELIEVE THEIR CLOSE SOCIAL CIRCLES QUITE A LOT, AND
WE HAVE TO CREATE A SYSTEM IN WHICH PEOPLE CAN ALSO TRUST WHAT THEY SEE WHAT THEY SEE
ONLINE FROM OTHER PEOPLE, SO THAT WHEN WE PRESENT THEM WITH CORRECT INFORMATION THEY
WILL BE MORE LIKELY TO CHANGE THEIR MIND AND GOING OUT THERE AND BANNING EVERYTHING OUTRIGHT
IS GOING TO BE, YOU KNOW, HURTING THAT PURPOSE. SO, THAT IS MY PRESENTATION.
IT WAS VERY SHORT BECAUSE I KNOW WE HAVE ESTEEMED PANELISTS HERE AND WE CAN LEARN FROM THEM
AS WELL. THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
[APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU.
WE’RE GOING TO SAVE OUR QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS FOR THE END OF THE PANEL.
NEXT PRESENTER IS DR. SAHINOVIC FROM W.H.O. ARE YOU ON THE LINE?
>>YES, CAN YOU HEAR ME?>>YES, PLEASE PROCEED.
>>THANK YOU FOR INVITING ME TO THIS IMPORTANT PANEL OF THE NATIONAL VACCINE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
TO DISCUSS MISINFORMATION ON THE INTERNET. I’M ISABELLE SAHINOVIC, I WORK WITH W.H.O.
HEADQUARTERS IN GENEVA, I MANAGE VACCINE SAFETY NET WE CALL THE VSN.
I’M HERE WITH DR. PATRICK ZUBIL FROM W.H.O. AND MR. BRIAN YELL, PROMOTION AND ENGAGEMENT
FOCAL POINT. NEXT SLIDE PLEASE.
SO MY PRESENTATION WILL FOCUS ON HIGHLIGHTING THE VACCINE SAFETY NET CONTRIBUTION TO TACKLE
VACCINE MISINFORMATION. I’LL START BY BRIEFLY EXPLAINING WHAT IS VSN
AND ITS GOALS, SHARE FIGURES ABOUT THE NETWORK, EXPLAIN THE VSN VERIFICATION PROCESS AND ROLE
OF THE VSN VISUAL IDENTITY. FINALLY, I WILL PRESENT SOME OF THE VSN TOOLS,
ACTIVITIES, STRATEGIES THAT AIM TO RESPOND TO INTERNET USERS’ NEEDS FOR VACCINES AND
VACCINE SAFETY INFORMATION. NEXT SLIDE.
THE VACCINE SAFETY NET IS A WORLDWIDE WEBSITE VERIFIED BY W.H.O. THAT PROVIDES INFORMATION
ON SAFETY AND VACCINES MORE GENERALLY. NETWORK WAS INITIATED IN 2003, TO COUNTERBALANCE
GROUPS USING THE INTERNET TO QUESTION THE UTILITY OF VACCINATION AND WEBSITES PROVIDING
MISLEADING AND ALARMING INFORMATION ON THE SAFETY OF VACCINES.
THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON VACCINE SAFETY IS THE W.H.O.’S INDEPENDENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE
ON VACCINE SAFETY. IT HAS DEVELOPED CRITERIA AGAINST WHICH VSN
SITES ARE EVALUATED. THE VSN HAS TWO MAIN GOALS, FIRST TO FACILITATE
ACCESS TO TRUSTWORTHY AND SCIENCE BASED INFORMATION FOR INTERNET USERS, REGARDLESS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC
LOCATION BACKGROUND, LANGUAGES, HEALTH LITERACY. THE SECOND GOAL OF THE VSN IS COLLABORATE,
NOT ONLY WITHIN THE NETWORK WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES, TO INCREASE AWARENESS ABOUT VACCINES,
CONTRIBUTE TO REDUCE VACCINE DISCERN AND STRENGTHEN CONFIDENCE IN VACCINES.
THIS IS ACHIEVED BY BETTER UNDERSTANDING INTERNET USERS’ NEEDS, BEHAVIOR, PREFERENCES, PROVIDE
RELIABLE INFORMATION THAT IS TAILORED TO USER NEEDS AND COMMUNICATE VACCINE SAFETY USING
THE DIVERSITY OF DIGITAL CHALLENGE. NEXT SLIDE PLEASE.
THE VSN GREATEST ASSET IS DIVERSITY OF ITS WEBSITE.
TRUSTED INFORMATION IS GENERATED FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD, AND IN MULTIPLE LANGUAGES.
THESE ALLOW FOR CULTURALLY SENSITIVE MATERIAL, TAILORED TO LOCAL CONTEXT THAT TAKES INTO
CONSIDERATION THE AUDIENCE HEALTH LITERACY. THE NETWORK COMPRISES WEBSITE OWNED BY GOVERNMENT,
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, ACADEMIA, INFORMATION PLATFORMS, FACT CHECKING WEBSITES, BUT ALSO
MAGAZINES, COMMUNITY OWNED WEBSITE, FROM HIGH INCOME AND LOW INCOME COUNTRIES.
TO DATE, 82 WEBSITES FROM 36 COUNTRIES PROVIDE INFORMATION IN 26 LANGUAGES.
IT IS ESTIMATED 2 MILLION NEW USERS ARE ACCESSING INFORMATION EVERY MONTH AND LAST YEAR SOME
72 MILLION PAGES WERE VIEWED ON VSN WEBSITES. NEXT SLIDE PLEASE.
THERE ARE TWO WAYS A WEBSITE CAN APPLY FOR MEMBERSHIP, EITHER WEBSITE OWNER REQUESTS
W.H.O. FOR EVALUATION AGAINST GACVS CRITERIA OR W.H.O. FOR PROMISING CANDIDATES ACCORDING
TO DEFINED EXTENSION STRATEGY. W.H.O. ASSESSES DO PRELIMINARY SCREENING TO
VERIFY WEBSITE NEEDS. IT’S IMPORTANT TO NOTE CORPORATE WEBSITES
AND SITES THAT SEEM TO BE IRREGULARLY UPDATED ARE NOT CONSIDERED.
ONCE SCREENED, THE WEBSITE UNDERGO EVALUATION OF CONTENT, WITH FOCUS ON THE SCIENTIFIC ACCURACY.
NOT LESS THAN 50 VARIABLES ARE ASSESSED, DISPATCHED IN FOUR CATEGORIES INCLUDING WEBSITE CREDIBILITY,
CONTENT, ACCESSIBILITY, AND DESIGN. CREDIBILITY IS ASSESSED BY VERIFYING OWNERSHIP
OF THE WEBSITE, HOW TRANSPARENT IT THE SPONSORSHIP, ARE MEASURES IN PLACE FOR ACCOUNTABILITY FOR
USERS. CLEAR STATEMENT OF SOURCE FOR SCIENTIFIC,
MEDICAL, AND HEALTH INFORMATION INCLUDING AUTHOR’S NAME, AFFILIATION, AND ANY POTENTIAL
CONFLICT OF INTEREST, AUTHORS MAY HAVE, RELATED TO THE CONTENT, IS REVIEWED.
ACCESSIBILITY AND DESIGN ARE ACCESSED WITH THE SAME RIGOR AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE IMPLEMENTED,
SORRY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS PROVIDED TO THE SITE OWNER FOR COMPLIANCE.
ONCE RECOMMENDATIONS ARE IMPLEMENTED TO THE SATISFACTION OF THE W.H.O. ASSESSORS, WEBSITES
ARE LISTED ON THE W.H.O. WEBSITE AND ACCESSIBLE FROM THE VSN PORTAL.
NEXT SLIDE. TO SIGNAL MEMBERSHIP TO THE VSN, NEWLY QUALIFIED
WEBSITES ARE AUTHORIZED TO HOST VSN VISUAL IDENTITY ON THEIR WEBSITE.
THIS VSN LOGO HAS TWO PURPOSES. ONE, IT’S TO SIGNAL TO VISITORS THAT THE INFORMATION
THEY ARE ACCESSING MEETS GOOD INFORMATION PRACTICES CRITERIA AND SECOND, SERVES TO PROMOTE
ENTIRE NETWORK AS A PLACE FOR TRUSTED VACCINE INFORMATION.
BY USING TECHNIQUES SUCH AS CROSS LINKING STRATEGY, THE AIM TO PRIORITIZE VSN INFORMATION
THROUGH SEARCH ENGINES. VSN IS ESTABLISHED AND COORDINATED BY THE
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, THESE THIS DOES NOT IMPLY AN AFFILIATION WITH OR ENDORSEMENT
OF THAT ORGANIZATION BY W.H.O. BEYOND RECOGNITION BY W.H.O. THAT ITS WEBSITE MEETS VSN CRITERIA.
NEXT SLIDE. ONE IMPORTANT TOOL TO FURTHER ENHANCE THE
ACCESS TO RELIABLE INFORMATION ON VACCINES AND VACCINE SAFETY IS VSN PORTAL, THE V SN
HUB ON THE INTERNET, IT PROVIDES CENTRAL ACCESS OF THE PUBLIC TO RESOURCES AND INFORMATION
OFFERED BY THE NETWORK MEMBER. AT THE SAME TIME, IT’S ALSO OFFERED TO MEMBERS
PASSWORD PROTECTED AREA FOR SHARING INFORMATION, FAVOR EXCHANGE OF BEST PRACTICE, HELP BREAK
ISOLATION. THE SEARCH MANUAL ON THE PORTAL HOME PAGE
HAS BEEN CUSTOMIZED TO SEARCH ACROSS VSN WEBSITES ONLY.
THEREFORE THE PAGE OBTAINED AFTER TYPING THE SPECIFIC KEY WORD IN A SEARCH FIELD WILL ONLY
DISPLAY INFORMATION FROM CREDIBLE SOURCES. NEXT SLIDE.
SOCIAL MEDIA WE’VE HEARD POWERFUL INFORMATION CHANNELS.
THE RAPIDLY EVOLVING DIGITAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION LANDSCAPE REQUIRES TO INCREASE
THE NETWORK VISIBILITY TO SOCIAL MEDIA SPACE. THE VSN SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY IS DEDICATED
TO COMMUNICATING VACCINE RISK AND BENEFITS, ENGAGE IN SUPPORT OF PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS
RAISE AWARENESS, INFLUENCE ATTITUDE, INCREASE KNOWLEDGE IN VACCINE SAFETY LITERATURE.
BESIDES INCREASING VISIBILITY AND REPUTATION, MANAGING VSN SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS HAS OUTCOME,
THAT IS EXPERIENCE. THIS IS TRANSLATED INTO VALUABLE LEARNING
THAT ARE REUSED BY THE VSN. IN AUGUST 2019, PINTEREST TEAMED UP WITH W.H.O.
AND VSN TO PROVIDE RELIABLE INFORMATION ABOUT IMMUNIZATION FROM LEADING PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS,
INCLUDING THE W.H.O., CDC, THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS AND VSN.
SUCH A PLAN OF THE VSN SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY CONSISTS INSTEAD OF GROWING THE FOLLOWERS
BASE, EXPANDING REACH AND DIVERSIFYING PLATFORMS, CONTINUE DOCUMENTING LEARNING AND INSIGHT
GAINED FROM INTERACTION, ANALYZE PATTERNS OF SUCCESSFUL PUBLICATIONS AND INTERACTIONS,
AND COLLABORATION WITH FACEBOOK, TWITTER AND GOOGLE AS WELL AS WITH SOCIAL MEDIA INFLUENCERS
AROUND THE GLOBE. NEXT SLIDE.
IN A WORLD WHERE INFORMATION COMPETES FOR ATTENTION AND MISINFORMATION PROLIFERATES,
UNDERSTANDING ROOT CAUSES FROM NOT VACCINATING, MONITORING BEHAVIORS, RESPONDING TO THE NEEDS
OF THOSE WHO HESITATE TO VACCINATE, AND MAINTAIN THE PUBLIC GAIN OF VACCINATION IS CRUCIAL.
TO THAT EFFECT, W.H.O. AND VSN MEMBERS AGREED IN 2017 TO SHARE INDIVIDUAL WEB ANALYTICS
TO INFORM THE NETWORK, ANALYZES DETAINING VISITORS PROFILE AND INTEREST, GEOGRAPHIC
OUTREACH, VISIBILITY ON GOOGLE SEARCH HAVE STIMULATED PARTICIPANTS INSTITUTIONS TO REVIEW
THEIR ONLINE VISIBILITY. DURING FEBRUARY 2018 TO FEBRUARY 2019, 20
MILLION SESSIONS WERE RECORDED FROM A SUBSET OF 30 PARTICIPATING WEBSITES.
WITH 34 MILLION PAGES VIEWED. A TOTAL OF 10.5 MILLION NEW USERS WERE DOCUMENTED.
NEXT SLIDE. WE ARE NOW PLANNING TO EXPAND THIS SCOPE OF
THE VSN WEB ANALYTICS INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA LISTENING AND AUDIENCE ANALYSIS.
IT IS EXPECTED THAT THIS WILL INFORM EACH VSN MEMBERS ABOUT RESPECTIVE INFORMATION STRATEGIES.
THIS SHOULD ALSO HELP THE NETWORK TO TEST GLOBAL INFORMATION CAMPAIGNS AND MEASURE THAT
IMPACT. THIS SLIDE PRESENTS THE MODEL THAT WILL BE
USED TO ACHIEVE THIS. THE VSN IS PARTNERING WITH AN AUDIENCE, EVENT
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS, AND SOCIAL LISTENING PLATFORM, AND APPROACH CONSISTS IN IDENTIFYING THE AUDIENCES
THAT ARE MOST CONCERNED BY VACCINE SAFETY ISSUES, AND SEGMENT ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT
PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS VACCINATION. CONVERSATION WILL BE CLUSTERED TO UNDERSTAND
HOW DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES TALKS ABOUT THE SAME TOPIC DIFFERENTLY, AND THIS WILL SERVE
TO PERSONALIZE THE MESSAGES ACROSS THE KEY AUDIENCES IDENTIFIED.
NEXT SLIDE. THIS SLIDE PRESENTS THE WHOLE PAGE OF THE
VSN PORTAL. IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HOME PAGE YOU HAVE
RECOGNIZED A CHAT WINDOW. THE NETWORK IS EXPLORING THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING AS TOOLS TO CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVE THE DELIVERY OF TAILORED
MESSAGES INCLUDING TESTING NEW WAYS OF INTERACTING SUCH AS CHATBOT.
THESE MEMBER CONTRIBUTE TO CONTENT DEVELOPMENT OF VACCINE SAFETY CHATBOTS TO ADDRESS COMMON
CONCERN THE PUBLIC HAS AROUND ISSUES RELATED TO VACCINE SAFETY.
IT IS PLANNED A NEW PRODUCT WILL BE LAUNCHED DURING THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY IN 2020.
NEXT SLIDE. THE NEXT STEPS INCLUDE SHARING TOOLS FOR INTEGRATION
IN VSN MEMBERS HOME PAGE. THE VSN WILL MAKE USE OF THE CHATBOTS TO CAPTURE
BEHAVIOR INTERACTION, DOCUMENT USERS INFORMATION NEEDS, IDENTIFY POTENTIAL VACCINE SAFETY INFORMATION
SIGNALS. THE CHATBOTS WILL GENERATE ITS OWN ANALYTICS
THAT WILL INFORM THE NETWORK TO TIMELY RESPOND WITH TAILORED INFORMATION.
ADDITIONALLY, CHATBOTS DATA WILL BE ANALYZED, SORRY, IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE DATA CAPTURED
BY VSN LISTENING PROJECT. REGROUP CONSISTING OF MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS,
CLINICAL RESEARCH EPIDEMIOLOGIST, BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST AND COMMUNICATION SPECIALISTS WILL
ANALYZE BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS AND INFORM INFORMATION NEEDS AND PROVIDE ANSWERS USING
LATEST SCIENCE TAILORED TO LITERALLY LEVEL AND SENTIMENT EXPRESSED.
MILLIONS OF INTERACTIONS WILL BE CAPTURED TO FURTHER GROW BOT KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING
PROCESS. VSN ABOUT PARTNER WITH PLAYERS SUCH AS PINTEREST,
YouTube, GOOGLE, TO BROADEN AUDIENCE OUTREACH. FINALLY THIS INTERNATIONAL HEALTH PARTNERSHIP
WILL PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THE NEXT W.H.O. GLOBAL VACCINE SAFETY STRATEGY, VSN IS WORKING ON
THE DESIGN OF LOCAL, REGIONAL, GLOBAL DATA DRIVEN DIGITAL VACCINE SAFETY INFORMATION
AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGY, AND I WILL CONCLUDE BY SAYING INVESTING IN THE VACCINE SAFETY
NET HAS BEEN REWARDING IN MANY WAYS AND DESERVES INVESTMENT IN THE LONG TERM.
THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU.
VERY INTERESTING AND INFORMATIVE. NEXT WE’LL HAVE LAUREN CULBERSON FROM TWITTER.
>>GOOD MORNING. THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME HERE.
I WANT TO SAY THANK YOU TO HHS. YOU’VE BEEN INCREDIBLE PARTNER AS WE WORK
TODAY TO TRY TO COMBAT MISINFORMATION ON VACCINE INFORMATION.
THANK YOU FOR THAT. I WANT TO TALK A LITTLE ABOUT WHAT WE’VE BEEN
DOING AT TWITTER TO HELP COMBAT MISINFORMATION AROUND VACCINATION.
THIS IS PART OF OUR COMMITMENT TO ENSURING THAT PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO CREDIBLE INFORMATION,
ESPECIALLY WHEN IT COMES TO IMPORTANT HEALTH TOPICS SUCH AS THIS.
I WANT TO IMPACT THAT STATEMENT A LITTLE BIT BECAUSE I THINK THAT WAS HIT ON A MINUTE AGO.
THAT’S ENSURING PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND THAT’S WHERE WE SEE OUR ROLE, TWITTER
SUPERPOWER TO CONNECT PEOPLE AND SO WE’RE LOOKING AT HOW WE CAN HELP CONNECT PEOPLE
TO CREDIBLE INFORMATION. THAT’S WHERE YOU ALL PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE,
YOU’RE THE EXPERTS. YOU’RE THE HEALTH PROFESSIONALS.
SO WHEN YOU PUT THOSE THINGS TOGETHER I THINK YOU CAN REALLY HAVE POWERFUL RESULTS THERE.
SO WE DECIDED TO LAUNCH A SEARCH PROMPT. WHEN PEOPLE GO ON TWITTER, HERE’S WHAT IT
LOOKS LIKE, THEY CAN ACCESS IF THEY SEARCH FOR VACCINATION OR RELATED SEARCH TERMS, THEY
WILL BE MET WITH WHAT WE CALL SEARCH PROMPT. SO HERE WE ARE, SEARCHING VACCINES, AND IN
THE U.S. YOU’RE PROMPTED WITH KNOW THE FACTS, TO MAKE SURE YOU GET THE BEST WELL, IT POINTS
TO THE WEBSITE, THE VACCINES.GOV WEBSITE. IT’S KNOW THE FACTS TO MAKE SURE YOU GET THE
BEST INFORMATION ON VACCINATIONS, RESOURCES AVAILABLE FROM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES, VISIT VACCINES.GOV AND LINKS TO HHS’S TWITTER ACCOUNT.
SO I ALSO WANTED TO MENTION TWITTER IS UNIQUE IN THAT WE’RE AN OPEN PUBLIC SERVICE.
WE ALSO RECOGNIZE THAT OUR PLATFORM IS ONE WHERE PEOPLE CAN OPENLY AND REALTIME CHALLENGE
MISINFORMATION. THAT’S SOMETHING THAT WE THINK A LOT ABOUT.
I’M SORRY, I HAVE LITTLE ICONS OF ALL THE FLAGS FOR COUNTRIES, THESE ARE THE COUNTRIES
WHETHER WE LAUNCHED THIS PARTICULAR FEATURE. WE ALSO WERE COMMITTED TO ENSURING THAT WHEN
PEOPLE WERE MET WITH INFORMATION IT WAS FROM A CREDIBLE SOURCE THEY RECOGNIZE SO WE WORKED
WITH HEALTH OFFICIALS ON THE GROUND, TO DIRECT PEOPLE TO CREDIBLE SOURCES OF INFORMATION
AND I JUST WANT TO SAY THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WAS VERY, VERY HELPFUL IN THIS ENDEAVOR.
SO OVERALL WE HAD 35 PROMPTS, WITH 35 PROMPTS CURRENTLY RUNNING ON TWITTER.
AND 33 COUNTRIES, 12 LANGUAGES, THAT IS 17 OFFICIAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
AND THAT’S REFLECTIVE OF SOME OF THE WORK THAT I JUST TALKED ABOUT.
SO WHAT’S NEXT FOR US? WE ARE PLANNING SOME ACTIVATION AROUND WORLD
IMMUNIZATION WEEK IN APRIL, WE’RE EXCITED ABOUT THAT, WE’LL BE IN TOUCH WITH YOU ABOUT
THAT. I WANTED TO MENTION A FEW THINGS THAT WE’VE
DONE BECAUSE THEY HAVE BEEN MENTIONED. RIGHT NOW WE SPRUNG INTO ACTION TO PUT OUT
A SEARCH PROMPT ON CORONAVIRUS, AND WE HAVE THAT RUNNING IN SEVERAL DOZEN MARKETS.
WE WORKED WITH THE CDC ON THAT PARTICULAR PROJECT.
WE’VE ALSO WORKED WITH HHS AND THE ADMINISTRATION ON THE OPIOID CRISIS, WHETHER IT’S SUPPORTING
THE CONVERSATIONS THAT ARE TAKING PLACE ABOUT RECOVERY ON PLATFORM, OR SUPPORTING TAKEBACK
DAY. WE ALSO HAVE A SEARCH PROMPT THAT ADDRESSES
SUICIDE AND SELF HARM, AND SO WE LINK IN THE UNITED STATES FOLKS UP TO THE SUICIDE PREVENTION
HOTLINE. SO THAT’S I WANTED TO GIVE A FLAVOR OF WHAT
WE’VE BEEN WORKING ON, AND WE APPRECIATE YOUR PARTNERSHIP AND REALIZE THAT IN ORDER TO SOLVE
THIS CHALLENGE WE HAVE TO WORK TOGETHER SO WE’RE COMMITTED TO DOING THAT WITH YOU ALL.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>THANK YOU.
NEXT IS ANA SANTOS RUTSCHMAN FROM ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY.
>>GOOD MORNING. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR HAVING ME.
I’M ANA SANTOS RUTSCHMAN WITH ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY, WORK WITH THE CENTER FOR HEALTH, THE LARGEST
CENTER FOCUSED ON HEALTH LAW RESEARCH AND POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES.
VACCINE MISINFORMATION IN THE REGULATION OF VACCINE SPEECH IN GENERAL IS ONE OF OUR PRIORITY
AREAS, MANY SESSIONS IN PREVIOUS PANELS AND STAND ALONE PRESENTATIONS MAKE IT PLENTY CLEAR
WHY THIS IS SUCH A RELEVANT AREA RIGHT NOW. BEING THE LAST ON THE PANEL I DECIDED TO GO
WITH A KITCHEN SINK APPROACH, SLIDES COVERING EVERYTHING, TWO TAKEAWAYS, A LAW PROFESSOR,
I’M GOING TO STRESS LEGAL CHALLENGES I THINK PERMEATE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS YOU’RE TRYING
TO ANSWER TODAY IN YOUR WORK. I’LL TRY TO INTERTWINE THAT WITH SOME POLICY
CONSIDERATIONS BECAUSE IT GO HAND IN HAND. AND ON THAT NOTE, I DON’T THINK THIS IS JUST
A PROBLEM OF SOLVING QUESTIONS RELATED TO MISINFORMATION.
VACCINES BEING A PARTICULAR TYPE OF HEALTH GOOD AND PUBLIC GOOD, I THINK WE’RE GOING
TO TOUCH ON MANY AREAS IN THE HEALTH SYSTEM, FIRST AMENDMENT, ISSUES THAT HAVE TO DO WITH
RELIGION. I THINK IT’S USEFUL TO THINK ABOUT THE REGULATION
AS MISINFORMATION BUT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING THAT’S QUITE BIGGER, CONCEPTUALLY,
AND OPERATIONALLY, AND IT’S I THINK IMPORTANT TO KEEP THAT IN MIND.
FIRST, LET ME CORRECT MY FIRST SLIDE. I’VE BEEN TALKING AND WRITING ABOUT VACCINE
MISINFORMATION BUT THERE’S NOT JUST MISINFORMATION. THERE’S MISINFORMATION, THERE’S DISINFORMATION,
DIFFERENT CATEGORIES, DIFFERENT TYPES OF INFORMATION BEING CONVEYED IN DIFFERENT WAYS WITH DIFFERENT
PURPOSES. SO I’M GOING TO BROADLY SPEAK ABOUT MISINFORMATION
BUT I THINK IT’S IMPORTANT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE ROLE OF INFORMATION WHERE SHARING
IN THE SCOPE OF THE SHARING PER SE. SO MISINFORMATION IS INCORRECT INFORMATION,
DISINFORMATION IS INCORRECT INFORMATION SPREAD WITH A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OFTEN IN THE FIELD
OF VACCINES SO ULTIMATE GOAL MIGHT BE DETACHED FROM CONVEYING VACCINE SPECIFIC INFORMATION.
WE HAVE HAD STUDIES TELLING US THAT ACTUALLY SOME PRO AND ANTI VACCINE SPEECH THAT WE FIND
ON SOCIAL MEDIA HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH VACCINES PER SE, IT’S JUST AN AREA THAT’S HOT TOPIC.
IN AMERICA THERE’S SOME INTEREST IN PROMOTING THAT KIND OF DIVISIVENESS.
I WILL BE BROADLY SPEAKING THE WORD MISINFORMATION, EVEN IN TALKING ABOUT THIS PARTICULAR AREA
I THINK THE ANALYSIS HAS TO BE QUITE NUANCED BECAUSE WE’RE DEALING WITH DIFFERENT BEASTS,
SO TO SPEAK. I’LL TALK ABOUT THREE MAIN THINGS.
WHEN WE TALK ABOUT TYPES OF MISINFORMATION, AGAIN, LARGE SCOPE, WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MISINFORMATION CURRENTLY FIND ON SOCIAL MEDIA WE’VE BEEN MAPPING DIFFERENT
CATEGORIES AND I HIGHLIGHT THE THREE MAIN ONES WE’VE BEEN FINDING.
THERE’S VACCINES PER SE, WHAT THEY DO, A LOT OF THIS IS MEDICAL, PURELY MEDICAL INFORMATION.
THIS IS WHERE I THINK MOST OF THE SPEECH IS CONCENTRATED.
WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT THE POSSIBLE SECONDARY EFFECTS OF VACCINES, WHEN THERE ARE CERTAIN
CLAIMS BEING MADE ABOUT WHY VACCINES MIGHT TRIGGER FACTUALLY INACCURATE I WOULD SAY THAT’S
MISINFORMATION, PERHAPS DISINFORMATION ABOUT VACCINES AS GOOD PER SE.
THERE’S A LOT OF MISINFORMATION, NOT QUANTITATIVELY, AS MUCH, BUT THERE’S A LOT OF MISINFORMATION
ABOUT THE LAWS AND POLICIES SURROUNDING VACCINES AND VACCINATIONS.
AND I’LL TALK ABOUT THOSE IN A MOMENT. BUT THERE IS SOME CONFUSION AND SOME CONFUSION
THAT’S CREATED ON PURPOSE, THAT’S MEANT TO STRENGTHEN THE IDEA VACCINATIONS WITH BEING
IMPOSED UPON THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOMETIMES LAWS ARE MISUSED INSTRUMENTALLY USED MISCHARACTERIZED
TO PROMOTE DISUSE ON SOCIAL MEDIA. AND OFFLINE AS WELL.
FINALLY SOMETHING THAT REALLY EMERGED WITH ADVENT OF SOCIAL MEDIA, OBSCURE QUESTION,
PROPRIETARY RIGHTS OVER VACCINE TECHNOLOGY, THE IDEA SOMEBODY, THE GOVERNMENT OR GOVERNMENT
FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTION OWNS THE VACCINE OR A VIRUS.
DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF MISINFORMATION WE SEE CIRCULATING.
TALKING ABOUT VACCINES, PER SE, I THINK WE’VE HEARD A LOT ABOUT THIS PARTICULAR CATEGORY.
SOMETHING THAT’S SPECIFIC TO VACCINES AS OPPOSED TO OTHER GOODS AND HEALTH GOODS, EVEN SOMETIMES
THERE’S A PATINA IN THE FIELD OF VACCINES BECAUSE THERE HAVE BEEN REPUTABLE SCIENTIFIC
PUBLICATIONS THAT HAD TO RETRACT STUDIES THAT WERE PUBLISHED, BUT IF YOU CROSS THIS MISINFORMATION
WITH THE IDEA THERE’S AGENDA THAT CERTAIN INFORMATIONS, THEY WANT TO BRUSH THAT TO CERTAIN
POPULATIONS, THIS IS SOMETHING THAT’S VERY SPECIFIC TO VACCINES.
JUST AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT I MEAN WHEN I SAY THERE’S MISINFORMATION ABOUT VACCINES PER
SE, THAT’S A PROBLEM THAT’S COMPOUNDED BY THIS PARTICULAR BACKGROUND IN THE HISTORY
OF VACCINE INFORMATION, THE IDEA THAT THERE HAVE BEEN STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN DISCREDITED
BUT THAT PROPAGATED THE IDEAS VACCINES TRIGGER CERTAIN MEDICAL EFFECTS THAT WE KNOW NOW NOT
TO BE THE CASE. ON THE TOPIC OF LAWS AND POLICIES, WE CAN
INSTRUMENTALLIZE THE WRONG WAY, MISS MISINFORMATION ON SOCIAL MEDIA, THE IDEA VACCINES HARM PEOPLE,
BECAUSE THERE’S THE NATIONAL VACCINE COMPENSATION PROGRAM CREATED IN THE ’80s TO STABILIZE THE
MARKET AND REDUCE LITIGATION BUT WE’VE ENCOUNTERED CLAIMS THAT SAY, LOOK, VACCINES ARE HARMFUL,
SO HARMFUL THE GOVERNMENT WILL PAY YOU BECAUSE THEY HARM YOU.
SO THIS IS A WAY OF USING THE INSTRUMENTAL WAY TO CONVEY MISINFORMATION.
I WILL SKIP THIS SECOND EXAMPLE BECAUSE I’LL RETURN TO IT TOWARDS THE END OF THE PRESENTATION.
IN TERMS OF VACCINE, THERE’S A LOT OF WRITING IN THIS SLIDE.
THIS IS A VALUE IT PATENT ISSUED NOT THAT LONG AGO, 2018.
THIS IS NUMBER 54, BELOW UNITED STATES PATENT, SAYS CORONAVIRUS.
IF YOU GO ON GOOGLE PATENT AND SEARCH FOR PATENTS ON CORONAVIRUS, YOU WILL GET THIS.
SO A SUBSTRAIN OF THE TYPE OF MISINFORMATION NOT JUST ON SOCIAL MEDIA BUT TO A LARGE DEGREE
ON SOCIAL MEDIA HAS TO DO WITH THIS IDEA THAT THE PTO ISSUE THE A PATENT ON CORONAVIRUS.
IT’S NOT THE CASE. NUMBER ONE, THIS IS NOT EVEN THE STRAIN OF
CORONAVIRUS THAT WE’RE PARTICULARLY WORRIED ABOUT TODAY.
ALSO, IT IS FROM A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ABSOLUTETY IMPOSSIBLE TO PATENT A VIRUS.
THE SUPREME COURT SAID THAT ON A NUMBER OF OCCASIONS.
YOU CAN PATENT INVENTIONS, HUMANS HAVE NOT INVENTED A VIRUS, IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO HAVE
PROPRIETARY RIGHTS. THAT’S NOT HOW WE INSTINCTIVELY READ THIS.
WITH EBOLA THERE WAS MISINFORMATION CIRCULATING ON SOCIAL MEDIA SAYING GOVERNMENTS, INSTITUTES,
CERTAIN FUNDERS ARE GETTING PROPRIETARY RIGHTS OVER THE EBOLA VIRUS, A STRAIN THEREOF, OVER
CORONAVIRUS IN GENERAL. THIS IS SOMETHING THAT WE DIDN’T SEE MANY
YEARS AGO THAT COINCIDES WITH THE ADVENT OF SOCIAL MEDIA, I DON’T THINK IT’S ATTRIBUTABLE
TO SOCIAL MEDIA. THIS WAS ABOUT THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MISINFORMATION
THAT WE’VE BEEN MAPPING AND ENCOUNTERING ON SOCIAL MEDIA.
AND WE KNOW FROM SEVERAL STUDIES OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS THAT SOCIAL MEDIA ACTS AS VEHICLES
FOR MISINFORMATION AND I DON’T MEAN THIS REALLY AS DIRECT CRITICISM OF SOCIAL MEDIA.
THEY ARE VEHICLES FOR CONTENT AND PART OF THE CONTENT THIS HAPPENS TO BE VACCINE RELATED
MISINFORMATION. AND I’LL TALK ABOUT THE WAYS SOCIAL MEDIA
CARRY THAT INFORMATION, THAT MISINFORMATION, BUT ALSO I’LL TALK ABOUT THE HAPPY SIDE OF
THE STORY BECAUSE I THINK WHAT A LOT OF SOCIAL MEDIA HAS BEEN DOING TO COMBAT THAT UNCHARACTERISTIC
OF PROPAGATING MISINFORMATION IS COMMENDSABLE AND SOMETHING WE CAN DEFINITELY CAN BUILD
ON. VEHICLES, ACTUALLY A MAJORITY OF PEOPLE IN
THE WEST AND ELSEWHERE DO SUPPORT VACCINATION BUT THE MINORITY THAT DOES NOT IS INCREDIBLY
MORE VOCAL THAN THE MAJORITY. IT’S INCREDIBLY MORE VOCAL ON SOCIAL MEDIA
PER SE. THERE’S A DISPROPORTIONALITY THERE.
WHEN I EARLIER TALKED DID DISINFORMATION, THE IDEA I AS THE ORIGINATOR OF MISINFORMATION
MIGHT NOT EVEN BE INTERESTED IN THE PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OR PROPERTIES OF VACCINES
BUT JUST WANT SOCIETY TO BE PROGRESSIVE, SO A STUDY FROM 2018 FOUND THAT THERE’S AUTOMATED
ANTI AND PRO VACCINE CONTENT BEING DIVULGED, NOT CONTENT ORIGINATING IN THE U.S., SOME
BOTS AND MALWARE COMING FROM RUSSIA AND UKRAINE REGION, AMPLIFIES THE QUANTITY OF VACCINE
MISINFORMATION ON SOCIAL MEDIA AND THIS IS A MORE RECENT PHENOMENON THAT WE’VE OBSERVED
OVER THE PAST COUPLE YEARS AND IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE.
NOW, WE’VE JUST HEARD ABOUT WHAT TWITTER HAS BEEN DOING, AND AGAIN I THINK THAT IT’S REMARKABLE
THAT DEGREE OF SELF REGULATION, SELF ORGANIZATION, PART OF SOCIAL MEDIA, I WOULD JUST LIKE TO
GO VERY QUICKLY THROUGH A NUMBER OF APPROACHES BECAUSE TWITTER HAS A PARTICULAR APPROACH
TO RESPONDING TO MISINFORMATION ON THIS FIELD. BUT THERE ARE OTHERS.
SO, SUPPRESSION APPROACH IS PINTEREST INITIALLY, DOWNGRADING OR REORGANIZING APPROACH, FACEBOOK’S
INITIAL APPROACH AND A FEW OTHERS I’LL MENTION IN PASSING PAIRED WITH THE IDEA WE CAN HAVE
SOFTWARE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR VACCINE MISINFORMATION. SO SUPPRESSION APPROACH SAYS THAT IF YOU HAVE
ANY TYPE OF VACCINE RELATED SPEECH, YOU’RE NOT ONE OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE CREDIBLE
AND HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS SO WE’RE NOT GOING TO LET YOU PUBLISH YOUR MESSAGE ON OUR PLATFORM.
OF COURSE, THIS CAN BE PAIRED WITH OTHER INTERVENTION SUCH AS SHOWING CONTENT FROM THE W.H.O. OR
YOU CAN DO WHAT INITIALLY PINTEREST DID, WE’RE NOT GOING TO SHOW THIS CONTENT AT ALL.
YOU CAN HAVE THE DOWNGRADING APPROACH, STILL SHOW SOME MISINFORMATION, BUT YOU WILL DOWNGRADE
SO IT WILL SHOW MAYBE IN TENTH PLACE INSTEAD OF FIRST PLACE WHEN YOU ACTIVELY SEARCH.
YOU CAN PAIR THAT WITH INTERVENTIVE STEPS. YOU CAN HAVE ADS FOR FREE IF PEOPLE ENGAGE,
RECRUIT THIRD PARTIES TO HELP MINE THAT CONTENT. YOU CAN HAVE INFORMATIONAL CAMPAIGNS USING
SOCIAL MEDIA, STUDIES HAVE SUGGESTED SOCIAL MEDIA AND PARTICULARLY PAIRING OF CERTAIN
APPS THAT REMIND PARENTS THAT, YOU KNOW, THE TIME TO VACCINATE THEIR CHILDREN ACCORDING
TO THE SCHEDULE IS COMING. THAT CAN BE ACTUALLY VALUABLE IN TERMS OF
INCREASING, NOT JUST THE ACCURACY OF INFORMATION BUT THE PRESENCE OF CREDIBLE CONTENT ONLINE.
AND THEN TECHNICAL THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE, THE IDEA WE CAN FUND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMS
THAT WILL ATTEMPT TO EITHER PREEMPT OR IDENTIFY AUTOMATED VACCINE MISINFORMATION CIRCULATING
ONLINE. I WOULD ECHO SOME OF WHAT WE’VE HEARD IN PREVIOUS
PRESENTATIONS, THIS MIGHT ENTAIL IN SOME CASES TARGETING VACCINE INFORMATION THAT IS ACCURATE
JUST BECAUSE THIS IS NOT HUMANS CONTROLLING ALL THE DECISIONS BEING MADE AND WE MIGHT
HAVE SOME ISSUES THERE POTENTIALLY SOME FREE SPEECH ISSUES.
TO CONCLUDE LET ME EMPHASIZE THE LEGAL POINTS, AND A COUPLE OF THE POLICY POINTS RELEVANT
HERE. THERE’S DEFINITELY A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE,
CONCEPT FOR HUMANITY, SPECIFIC TO THIS PARTICULAR FIELD.
EVEN IF WE THINK OF THIS AS A PROBLEM OF REGULATING SPEECH, IT’S ENTIRELY POSSIBLE TO MAKE THE
CASE THAT THERE’S SOMETHING SO SPECIFIC TO VACCINES FROM A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE
THAT CERTAIN TYPES OF RESPONSES THAT MIGHT ENCROACH ON SOME FREEDOM, PARTICULARLY FREEDOM
OF SPEECH, ARE JUSTIFIABLE BECAUSE, AGAIN, THIS IS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF GOOD THAT’S SIMILAR
FROM A PUBLIC PERSPECTIVE FROM OTHER TYPES OF GOODS THAT WE NORMALLY DON’T SUBJECT TO
FIRST AMENDMENT CONSTRAINTS. SO IT’S ENTIRELY POSSIBLE TO ARGUE THIS.
IT’S NOT THE EASIEST TYPE OF ARGUMENT TO PUT FORWARD BUT IT’S POSSIBLE TO SAY FROM A REGULATORY
PERSPECTIVE, PARTICULARLY WHEN WE ASSESS INTERACTION BETWEEN VACCINES AND FIRST AMENDMENT VALUES,
TWO THINGS AT STAKE, IT’S POSSIBLE TO SAY THAT WE SHOULD PAY CLOSER REGULATORY POSSIBLE
LEGISLATIVE ATTENTION TO VACCINE SPEECH AND REGULATED MORE STRICTLY.
THIS IS NOT WHAT WE DO RIGHT NOW. AND I WOULD LIKE TO SUGGEST THAT PROBABLY
IS NOT WHAT WE WOULD IDEALLY DO IN THE FUTURE FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS.
FIRST, THE IDEA THAT BANNING CERTAIN FORMS OF SPEECH MIGHT BE LEGAL, MIGHT BE POSSIBLE
TO ARGUE, BUT THE IDEA IT’S FROM A POLICY PERSPECTIVE AND FROM PERSUASIVE PERSPECTIVE
THE MOST EFFECTIVE TYPE OF INTERVENTION DOES NOT STRIKE ME AS APPROPRIATE.
THAT’S NOT WHAT RESEARCH SUGGESTS ELSEWHERE SO MUCH BETTER APPROACH I THINK FOR REGULATORS
AND POLICY MAYBE TO PAIR WITH SOCIAL MEDIA AND WITH I WOULD SAY SOCIAL MEDIA BUT ALSO
SAY BLOGGERS. BLOGGERS WHOSE CONTENT MIGHT BE SPREAD ON
SOCIAL MEDIA, BUT THEY THOSE RESEMBLE PUBLISHERS MUCH MORE CLOSELY THAN SOCIAL MEDIA DO.
SO PAIRING WITH THESE SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN TRYING TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM MIGHT BE
MORE PERSUASIVE THAN BANNING OR LIMITING CERTAIN TYPES OF SPEECH EVEN IF YOU THINK, I DO, VACCINES
ARE A PUBLIC TYPE OF PUBLIC HEALTH GOOD. AN ANALOGY THAT MIGHT BE USEFUL AS YOU THINK
THROUGH THIS PROBLEM IS WHAT HAPPENED WHEN FORMER COMMISSIONER GOTTLEIB SUGGESTED
CORRELATION WITH HERD IMMUNITY, HE SUGGESTED MAYBE THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD INTERVENE AND
BE MORE STRICTER MANDATING VACCINATION, IN PRETTY MUCH ELIMINATING NON MEDICAL EXEMPTION,
FROM LEGAL PERSPECTIVE I DOUBT THAT CAN BE DONE AND I’M HAPPY TO EXPLAIN IN Q&A IF THAT’S
OF INTEREST BUT THERE’S LEGAL DOCTRINES AND PRINCIPLES THAT MIGHT JUST PRECLUDE THAT.
EVEN IF THERE WERE NOT, I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE THE CASE THAT IT’S NOT FOR THE GOVERNMENT,
IT’S NOT IN OUR BEST INTEREST FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO MANDATE A PARTICULAR APPROACH, THE MORE
PERSUASIVE WOULD BE COLLABORATION. I WENT TO A DIFFERENT APPROACH, SOCIAL MEDIA
ENGAGING IN, THERE’S A DEGREE OF HETEROGENEITY. IF YOU’RE CONSUMING THROUGH MULTIPLE SOCIAL
MEDIA YOU’RE GOING TO SEE DIFFERENT MODERATION AND RESPONSE.
TWITTER MIGHT BE EFFECTIVE PROVIDING ACCURATE VACCINE RELATED INFORMATION, YOU MIGHT JUST
GET TO A DIFFERENT OUTLET WHAT TWITTER ACTUALLY JUST NUDGED YOU AWAY FROM.
I THINK THE INTERVENTION SHOULD BE TARGETED TOWARDS A MORE HOMOGENEOUS RESPONSE, AND THIS
WOULD BE ACHIEVABLE I THINK IN CONNECTION WITH WORKING WITH CONNECTION WITH SOCIAL MEDIA
AS OPPOSED TO STRONG INTERVENTION FROM THE TOP WHICH I THINK WOULD ONLY EXACERBATE CURRENT
DIVISIVENESS. ALSO THE IDEA THAT TO FINISH, THE IDEA THAT
ALL VOICES SHOULD BE HEARD AT THE TABLE, WE TEND TO TALK ABOUT ANTI VACCINATION AS THE
OPPOSITE OF PRO VACCINATION, BUT THERE ARE CATEGORIES IN BETWEEN THAT FROM A REGULATORY
PERSPECTIVE ARE UNEXPLORED, EVEN FROM SCHOLARLY PERSPECTIVE.
WE’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT ANTI VAXERS AS RUTHLESS PEOPLE WHO OPPOSE VACCINATION BUT WHAT ABOUT
PARENTS WHO HAVE CONCERNS ABOUT GIVING THEIR KIDS A LOT OF SHOTS IN A SINGLE DAY OR SHORT
PERIOD OF TIME, THERE’S SOMETHING DIFFERENT THERE ABOUT STAGGERING VACCINES VERSUS OPPOSING
VACCINATION. AND I THINK WE’VE NOT BEEN CAREFUL ENOUGH
TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SOME VERY VALID CONCERNS AND SOME THINGS THAT ARE COMPLETELY UNSCIENTIFIC,
SO BRINGING ALL VOICES TO THE TABLE IS IMPORTANT, COMBINED APPROACHES TALKING TO SOCIAL MEDIA
PLATFORMS ARE IMPORTANT, AND FINALLY I COMPLETELY AGREE THAT UNFORTUNATELY USING WHAT’S HAPPENING
WITH CORONAVIRUS AS A TARGETED MOMENT IN TIME FOR ANTI MISINFORMATION APPROACHES IS A GREAT
IDEA BUT THERE’S SOMETHING DEEPER WITH MISINFORMATION, WE SEE IT, IT’S REITERATING THROUGHOUT OUTBREAKS
WHAT WE SEE TODAY WITH CORONAVIRUS, WHAT WE SAW WITH EBOLA, AND IN THE MEANTIME THERE
IS THE FLU, RIGHT? WHICH IS LIKELY TO CLIMB MORE RISE THAN OUTBREAKS
COMBINED SO WE NEED TO THINK IMMEDIATELY ABOUT WAYS WHICH ARE USEFUL TO CURB VACCINE MISINFORMATION
WITH REGARD TO CORONAVIRUS BUT I THINK THERE’S A MORE CONSTANT THEME AND WE NEED TO GET PAST
OUTBREAK DU JOUR APPROACH AND THINK ABOUT MISINFORMATION AS SOMETHING INTEGRATED, FROM
RELIGIOUS, TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL, I MENTIONED, BUT ALSO NOT JUST VIRUS OR OUTBREAK OR VACCINE
SPECIFIC BUT HAS A CONTINUUM THAT IS LIKELY TO ESCALATE AND SO IT WOULD BE GOOD IF WE
WERE ABLE TO HAVE A MORE CONCERTED APPROACH. THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
>>I THANK THE MEMBERS OF THE PANEL. LET’S HAVE A ROUND OF APPLAUSE FOR THEM.
[APPLAUSE] BEFORE I START TAKING COMMENTS FROM COMMITTEES
IN THE ROOM, IF WE HAVE ANY QUESTIONS FROM OUR COMMITTEE MEMBERS ON THE LINE, PLEASE
ALERT ME. WE’LL START WITH CODY.
>>THANK YOU REALLY FOR AN EXCELLENT SERIES OF PRESENTATIONS ABOUT ISSUES THAT I THINK
MANY OF US ARE SPENDING A LOT OF TIME THINKING ABOUT.
I HAVE THREE QUESTIONS. IF I MAY, FIRST I WOULD LIKE TO ASK MISS CULBERSON
AT TWITTER IN THE COMPANY, HOW REPRESENTATIVE YOU ARE,
AND MAY WE, FOR THOSE WHO HAVE SUGGESTIONS OR CONCERNS OR COMMENTS, MAY WE CONTACT YOU
DIRECTLY?>>ABSOLUTELY.
I’M A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC POLICY TEAM, WE’RE PRETTY SMALL TEAM HERE IN D.C.
BUT HAPPY TO HAVE THOSE CONVERSATIONS, ABSOLUTELY.>>OKAY.
THANK YOU. AND THEN IS IT MISS RUTSCHMANN, OR DOCTOR?
>>DOCTOR, YES.>>OKAY.
YOUR PRESENTATION WAS GREAT. AND I PERSONALLY CONCUR WITH YOU THAT STATE
MANDATES FOR REQUIREMENTS FOR VACCINE THAT IS ELIMINATING RELIGIOUS ALL NON MEDICAL EXEMPTION
MAY NOT BE THE BEST WAY TO GO. I COMPLETELY AGREE WE DO HAVE THE FIRST AMENDMENT
AND PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO EXPRESS AN OPINION, EVEN THOUGH WE MAY FEEL THAT’S NOT CORRECT.
AND ONE EXAMPLE THAT I THINK OF IS SMOKING, FOR EXAMPLE.
WE ALL AGREE THAT TOBACCO SMOKING IS HARMFUL. BUT YET THAT HAS NOT BEEN BANNED.
IT’S BEEN RESTRICTED OBVIOUSLY IN CERTAIN SETTINGS BUT IT HASN’T BEEN BANNED.
AND WHAT WE’VE BEEN DISCUSSING ON THE VACCINE CONTENT SUBCOMMITTEE IS PERHAPS IT WOULD BE
BETTER TO NUDGE PEOPLE TOWARDS VACCINATION BY GIVING THEM INCENTIVES SUCH AS REDUCED
INSURANCE POLICY OR SOME SORT OF CREDIT IF YOU DO VACCINATE YOUR CHILDREN ACCORDING TO
AN APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE, AND I WONDERED IF YOU COULD COMMENT A LITTLE BIT MORE ON THAT.
>>SURE. THANK YOU.
FIRST, ON THE TOPIC OF MANDATES, MY POINT WAS SLIGHTLY BROADER THAN THAT, THAT THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT SHOULD NOT EXPRESS ANY PARTICULAR VIEWS THROUGH ITS OFFICIALS ON THE TOPIC BECAUSE
THIS IS RESERVED FOR STATES. LITERATURE IS SUGGESTING NON MEDICAL EXEMPTION
ARE HARMFUL, SO I THINK IT’S WORTH SPENDING TIME CONSIDERING THAT BUT THAT’S A DECISION
THAT HAS TO BE LEFT TO THE STATES. AT STATE BUT ALSO LOCAL, REGIONAL, EVEN SCHOOL
LEVEL, WE’RE NOW SEEING LITERATURE SUGGESTING THE USE OF APPS HAS HAD POSITIVE IMPACTS NUDGING
PEOPLE TOWARDS VACCINATION, AND I THINK THAT’S A VERY EFFECTIVE APPROACH.
SO I DEFINITELY AGREE WITH YOU THAT THE NUDGE APPROACH IS THE WAY TO GO.
AND I THINK THAT THERE HAS TO BE SOMETHING AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL WHICH INEVITABLY WILL
REQUIRE SOME TYPE OF FEDERAL INTERVENTION IF NOTHING ELSE BECAUSE SUCH DIVERSE PLAYERS
COME TOGETHER AND FROM DISCUSSION ON THE TOPIC BUT I THINK THE EPICENTER OF THE RESPONSE
HAS TO HAPPEN AT THE STATE LEVEL. AND I THINK WE’VE NOW SEEN SOME VERY PERSUASIVE
CASES OF APPS BEING USED TO INCENTIVIZE VACCINATION, TAX BREAKS COULD BE AN OPTION AS WELL, PERMITTED
UNDER CURRENT LAW SO THAT THAT’S ANOTHER OPTION. AND THERE COULD BE SOME MORE INFORMAL TYPES
OF NUDGES, CREATION OF GROUPS ON SOCIAL MEDIA, INFORMAL WE REGARDS, NOT TO FORMALIZE TAX
CREDIT BUT INFORMAL REWARDS, COMPETITIONS TO INCREASE.
I AGREE WITH YOU. STATE LEVEL, AND EVEN INFRASTATE LEVEL.
>>THANK YOU. I HAVE ONE QUESTION FOR DR. YARAGHI.
ONE OF THE ISSUES THAT WE CONFRONT IS THE ANTI VACCINE GROUP ISN’T HELD TO THE SAME
STANDARD THAT THE PRO VACCINE COMMUNITY IS. FOR EXAMPLE, WE HAD A PRESENTATION AT ONE
OF THE RECENT ACCV MEETINGS BY A VERY VOCAL ANTI VACCINE PERSON, AND SHE LISTED A SERIES
OF COMPLAINTS THAT SHE HAD, ONE OF WHICH WAS SHE’S LOOKED AT TEXT BOOKS, MEDICAL TEXT BOOKS,
AND NONE OF THEM IN THE SECTIONS ON VACCINES INCLUDE THE SIDE EFFECTS OR ADVERSE EVENTS
OF VACCINES. WELL, AS ONE PERSON WHO WRITES SOME OF THOSE
CHAPTERS, MY DISTINGUISHED MEMBER TO MY RIGHT, DR. PICKERING WRITES IMMUNIZATION CHAPTERS
FOR A NUMBER OF THESE TEXT BOOKS, IT’S ABSOLUTELY A FALSE STATEMENT.
I DON’T THINK ANY RESPONSIBLE PERSON WOULD NOT INCLUDE THE ADVERSE EVENTS.
AND WHEN SHE WAS PUSHED ON THAT, SHE SAID, OH, WELL, THERE WAS ONE NURSING TEXT BOOK
I SAW THAT WAS WRITTEN THAT DIDN’T INCLUDE. WELL, IT’S SO OUTRAGEOUSLY DISHONEST AND DISINGENUOUS,
SO HARD TO PUSH BACK ON THAT BECAUSE THEY CAN SAY ANYTHING BUT PRO VACCINE PEOPLE REALLY
TRY AND CONFINE COMMENTS TO WHAT’S ACTUALLY FACTUAL.
ANY COMMENTS ABOUT THAT?>>YEAH, I THINK ONE OF THE REASONS THAT PRO
VACCINE COMMUNITY DO NOT NEED TO BASICALLY SAY ANYTHING IS BECAUSE THEY DON’T NEED THAT.
YOU KNOW, THEY ARE ON THE SIDE OF FACTS AND TRUTH.
WHEREAS THE ANTI VAXERS BASICALLY NEED TO FIND WAYS IN ORDER TO ADVANCE THEIR WRONG
CLAIMS. NOW, THAT BRINGS ME TO THE ISSUE OF CENSORING
INFORMATION, IF THAT LADY THAT YOU WERE MENTIONING WAS BANNED ON TWITTER, THE VERY FIRST OTHER
THING THAT SHE WILL CLAIM IN HER NEXT PRESENTATION IS, BY THE WAY, TWITTER COULDN’T TOLERATE
ME AND THEY BANNED ME. THAT’S WHY I WAS REFERRING TO MAKING ONLINE
MARTYRS. YOU KNOW, THEY WILL HAVE YET ANOTHER PIECE
OF EVIDENCE IN THEIR OWN MIND THAT PROVES THEIR INNOCENCE AND TRUTHFULNESS, WHEREAS
IN THE EXAMPLE THAT YOU MENTIONED, BECAUSE INFORMED PEOPLE WHERE IN THE SESSION YOU COULD
PROVIDE THE AUDIENCE AND ALSO, YOU KNOW, PRESENT HER WITH COUNTERARGUMENTS WITH CORRECT INFORMATION
SAYING THAT, NO, YOU KNOW, THERE’S SO MANY TEXT BOOKS THAT INCLUDE THAT INFORMATION,
BY THE WAY I AM THE AUTHOR OF ONE OF THOSE TEXT BOOKS, AND CAN YOU SPECIFICALLY TELL
ME WHICH TEXT BOOKS DO NOT INCLUDE THAT, AND THAT’S WHERE THEY START TO STUTTER.
AND THE GENERAL AUDIENCE WILL EASILY SEE THROUGH THAT.
AND THE SAME EXPERIENCE THAT HAPPENED OFFLINE FOR YOU I THINK COULD BE REPLICATED ONLINE,
IF SOMEBODY IS JUST BANNED I THINK IT’S NOT GOING TO HELP THAT MUCH WHEREAS FOR THE EXACT
SAME SCENARIO, YOU COULD PROVIDE A LIST OF, YOU KNOW, TEXT BOOKS AND ACTUALLY THROUGH
GOOGLE BOOKS, FOR EXAMPLE, SPECIFIC PAGES WHERE IT’S TALKING CLEARLY ABOUT THE SIDE
EFFECTS OF VACCINES AND THE UNDECIDED READERS OF THOSE CONTENT ON TWITTER, FACEBOOK, AND
ANY OTHER SOCIAL MEDIA APP, I THINK WILL BE VERY LIKELY TO BE CONVINCED.
>>AND WE WERE GOING THROUGH THE SEARCH PROMPT AND CRAFTING THIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH HHS,
WE WERE VERY DELIBERATE IN THE LANGUAGE THAT WE USED.
I READ A LOT ABOUT STUDIES DEALING WITH MISINFORMATION, ALSO FROM PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, TELLING SOMEONE
THEY ARE WRONG IS NOT THE RIGHT WAY TO GET THEM TO AGREE WITH YOU, RIGHT?
AND SO WE WERE VERY DELIBERATE HOW WE DELICATELY PUT IN THAT PROMPT SAYING YOU’RE WRONG, HERE
IS INFORMATION. KNOW THE FACTS.
WE’RE PRESENTING THIS CREDIBLE INFORMATION. YOU MIGHT WANT TO TAKE A LOOK AT THIS.
ALSO JUST PIGGYBACK ON THAT, YOU FIND REMOVING CONTENT DOES NOT REMOVE THE THOUGHT OR IDEOLOGY.
SO WHAT WE THINK ABOUT IS HOW DO YOU PROVIDE MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE INFORMATION YOU’RE
VIEWING, MORE CONTEXT, AND ALSO ONE MAGICAL THING ABOUT TWITTER, IT’S OPEN.
PEOPLE ARE ALWAYS HAVING THESE CONVERSATIONS AND CHALLENGING THINGS IN REAL TIME.
THAT’S SOMETHING WE WANT TO FOSTER HERE.>>LARRY?
>>IF SOMETHING BAD HAPPENS IN OUR LIVES, LIKE SOMETHING TO A CHILD OR GRANDCHILD, WE
WANT TO BLAME SOMETHING, OR SOMEONE. IT HELPS ALLEVIATE THE PAIN IF WE CAN SAY
THIS IS THE CAUSE OF IT, THAT’S THE CAUSE OF IT.
THIS MAKES THE ISSUE EASIER TO DEAL WITH BECAUSE KIDS WITH AUTISM ARE NOT EASY TO DEAL WITH,
AND PARENTS ARE STRESSED CONTINUOUSLY. IF A CHILD HAS AUTISM, WHAT PARENTS USUALLY
DO IS REVIEW DATA AND SEE AUTISM IS CAUSED BY VACCINES.
IT’S NOT, OF COURSE. BUT THAT’S WHAT THEY SEE.
STUDIES REFUTE, DO NOT PROVIDE A CAUSE AS TO WHAT CAN BE BLAMED.
SO HOW DO WE DEAL WITH THIS WHEN WE HAVE A KNOWN A CAUSE THAT IS REFUTED TO CAUSE AUTISM
BUT THERE’S NOTHING THAT WE CAN SAY REALLY CAUSES IT, TO OFFSET THIS?
SO WHAT DO YOU SUGGEST BE DONE?>>IT IS VERY, VERY DIFFICULT.
THERE ARE A COUPLE OF OPTIONS. AND LET ME JUST BE VERY CLEAR.
LEGALLY, WE COULD DO CERTAIN THINGS THAT I THINK WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.
WE HAVE A TORT SYSTEM. AND WE COULD HOLD SOME OF THE SOURCES EVEN
INDIVIDUALS OF MISINFORMATION ACCOUNTABLE THROUGH DIFFERENT TORTS, THE CASE HAS BEEN
MADE, SAY THIS IS NEGLIGENT, YOU HAVE SOME DUTY HERE.
NOT THE PLATFORMS THEMSELVES BUT WE COULD LOOK AT SOME, YOU KNOW, BLOGS OR WEBSITES
THAT ARE PROPAGATING THIS INFORMATION. AND WE COULD DO THAT AND TRY TO ELIMINATE
THE ROOTS. THE AGAIN, THE IDEOLOGY ABOUT LIVE ON.
I DON’T THINK THAT’S THE APPROACH. THAT BEING SAID, IF WE GO BACK TO THE IDEA
OF NUDGES, MODELING IS IMPORTANT. SO IN YOUR SPECIFIC EXAMPLE, I ALWAYS GET
MY CELEBRITIES WRONG BUT WHEN JENNY McCARTHY AND OTHER ONES CARRIED A FLAG FOR THE AUTISM
CAUSE, HOW DO WE COUNTER THAT BECAUSE THEY ARE POWERFUL PERSONAS.
BACK IN THE DAY, WHEN VACCINES WERE A NEW TECHNOLOGY TO THE UNITED STATES, AND PEOPLE
WERE VERY WORRIED ABOUT THESE LIVE THINGS BEING INJECTED INTO YOUR BODY, ONE OF THE
MOST PERSUASIVE PUBLIC ACTS WAS THE PRESIDENT SAYING HERE, I’M DOING THIS TO MY OWN FAMILY.
MODELING MIGHT NEED TO COME FROM SOMEWHERE, SOME SOURCE, SOME FIGURE THAT, I CAN’T BELIEVE
I’M SAYING THIS, THAT CAN BE ELEVATED TO A JENNY McCARTHY FIGURE.
A PARTICULARLY DRASTIC ONE, NUDGES PAIRED WITH THE IDEA WE NEED TO COUNTER THE SPEECH
AND MAKE IT PUBLICLY PERSUASIVE MIGHT BE SOMETHING LIKE THAT, THAT NEEDS TO BE FURTHER PURSUED.
>>AND I WANT TO CONTINUE UPON WHAT YOU SAID, THE OTHER EXAMPLE THAT WE SEE THE EXACT SAME
EFFECT IN THE BREAST CANCER, ANGELINA JOLIE WAS DIAGNOSED, AFTER HER ANNOUNCEMENT THE
NUMBER OF SCREENINGS SPIKED, SO THAT MODELING IS DEFINITELY AN ISSUE.
I THINK THE FUNDAMENTAL THING IS THE HUMAN NATURE.
WE REALLY WANT TO FIND A REASON FOR EVERYTHING IN OUR LIVES.
AND UNLESS UNTIL THE TIME THAT WE FIND THE REAL REASON, YOU KNOW, CLAIMS TO ANYTHING
THAT WE CAN, AND, YOU KNOW, BEFORE THAT I THINK THERE IS PRETTY MUCH NO OTHER SOLUTION.
YOU KNOW, HUMANS THOUGHT, YOU KNOW, WHEN IT’S RAINING, IT’S ANGELS ARE CRYING BECAUSE THEY
WANTED TO FIND THE REASON WHY WATER IS COMING OFF THE SKY.
UNTIL SCIENCE ADVANCED ENOUGH TO SAY HOW RAIN FORMS, THEN NOBODY NEEDS TO BELIEVE THAT IT
IS ANGELS THAT ARE CRYING, ALTHOUGH I THINK IT’S A VERY NICE WAY OF THINKING ABOUT IT.
SO, I THINK MAYBE THE SAD ANSWER IS THAT IF A PERSON IS REALLY, REALLY CONVINCED THAT
VACCINES CAUSE AUTISM, IF THEY HAD A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, AND IF THEY HAD RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
THAT IT DID IT, I DON’T THINK AN APP COULD BE THAT HELPFUL.
OR I DON’T THINK TAX INCENTIVES COULD BE HELPFUL BECAUSE IF I BELIEVE THAT MY GOD HAS TOLD
ME NOT TO VACCINATE YOUR CHILD, AN APP CANNOT DO THAT.
APPS OR TAX INCENTIVES COULD SHALL REALLY HELPFUL IF I MISSED AN APPOINTMENT, IF I FORGOT
TO VACCINATE MY CHILD, THOSE APPS WILL BE REALLY GOOD.
IF I’M UNDERSTAND DECIDED, IF I DON’T HAVE ANY OPINION FOR OR AGAINST VACCINES, IF THERE’S
A TAX INCENTIVE, DEFINITELY THAT WOULD BE HELPFUL.
I THINK THAT IS THE REASON THAT WE SEE THESE STUDIES, APPS, YOU KNOW, ARE VERY STRONG DRIVERS
OF INCREASING VACCINATION RATES. HOWEVER, IF I’M CONVINCED THEN AN APP OR A
TAX INCENTIVE, I DON’T THINK, WOULD BE HELPFUL.>>I THINK THE OTHER THING THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT
IS TRUST. WE HAVE TO ESTABLISH TRUST WITH OUR PATIENTS.
AS PHYSICIANS, PAS, NURSES, EVEN RECEPTIONS, ONE THING NEGATIVE CAN REFUTE EVERYTHING.
TRUST IS SO IMPORTANT THAT WE ESTABLISH WITH INDIVIDUALS WE DEAL WITH.
>>ABSOLUTELY.>>COULD I PIGGYBACK ON THAT TO SAY PART OF
THE DISCOURSE HAS TO BE TARGETED AND ADDRESSED TO THE RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES.
THERE’S REALLY NO MAJOR RELIGIONS THAT HOLD PARTICULAR VIEWS ON VACCINATION.
SO THIS IDEA OF MODELING, I TALKED ABOUT THIS CELEBRITY EFFECT, TALKING TO RELIGIOUS LEADERS
MIGHT BE SOMETHING THAT’S WORTH PURSUING MORE INTENSIVELY THAN WE DO RIGHT NOW.
>>AGAIN, THE MESSAGING NEEDS TO TARGET WHAT THE OBJECTION OR CONCERN IS.
MELISSA NEXT.>>I THINK MAYBE I’M REITERATING SOME THINGS
THAT YOU GUYS HAVE ALREADY SAID. BY PRESIDENT WAY, FASCINATING TALK.
BUT TO ME, IT’S ALWAYS SEEMED FOR ANY AUTHORITY TO BE CREDIBLE, YOU HAVE TO BE TRANSPARENT
AND YOU ALSO HAVE TO AT LEAST LISTEN TO DISSENTING VIEWS.
BUT NOW WHAT I’M HEARING IS THAT THE DISSENTERS, THANKS TO THE GROWTH OF SOCIAL MEDIA, SOMETIMES
THERE ARE NUANCED ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ABOUT VACCINES, BALANCING RISK AND BENEFITS.
SOME PEOPLE HAVE BELIEFS THAT BASED ON SOMETHING OTHER THAN INFORMATION AND FACTS, AND NOW
ON TOP OF IT ALL THERE’S EVEN SOME INFORMATION DISINFORMATION COMING OUT THAT’S BASED SORT
OF ON MALICE, NOT ON SINCERE CONCERN. SO IT’S REALLY HARD TO KEEP THAT CREDIBILITY
AND CONSIDER DISSENTING VIEWS. WHAT I’VE BEEN TOLD IS THAT DON’T TAKE CENSORS
HEAD ON AND CREATE MARTYRS AND HEROES, DON’T GIVE THE OTHER VIEWS A PLATFORM.
YET ON THE OTHER HAND, IF WE’RE NOT IF PEOPLE DON’T THAT WE’RE LISTENING AND AT LEAST CONSIDERING
VIEWS, WE’RE KINDS OF IN TROUBLE. I WAS INTRIGUED BY CHAT BOT, THE IDEA OF ADDRESSING
THINGS LOCALLY AND ADDRESSING PEOPLE’S SPECIFIC CONCERNS, BUT I’M STILL TRYING TO FIND THAT
BALANCE BETWEEN ADDRESSING THE ALLOWING OTHER OPINIONS TO BE EXPRESSED IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN
CREDIBILITY AND ALL THE OTHER THINGS THAT ARE GOING ON.
>>THE ONLY THING I’LL ADD TO WHAT WE’VE COLLECTIVELY SAID I GUESS IS THAT, YES, THERE ARE ALL THESE
LAYERS TO MISINFORMATION. I PERSONALLY, I DON’T SPEAK FOR THE CENTER
I WORK FOR, I BELIEVE THERE’S SOMETHING PARTICULAR ABOUT HERD IMMUNITY THAT WE’RE FAILING TO
RECOGNIZE, WHEN WE LOOK WHEN WE LOOK AT THIS, YOU KNOW, 360 VIEW THERE’S SOMETHING THAT’S
VERY SPECIFIC HERE. I SENSE THAT THAT SHOULD PERMEATE OUR FREE
SPEECH DISCUSSIONS THAT THINKS IF YOU ATTEMPT TO DIRECTLY REGULATE FREE SPEECH, EVEN IF
YOU REGULATE DIFFERENTLY, IN THE CASE OF VACCINES WILL HAVE REPERCUSSION AND RELIGIOUS IN OTHER
AREAS. I WOULD LIKE TO TELL YOU TODAY THERE ARE DIFFERENT
WAYS TO DEAL WITH DIFFERENT TYPE OF SPEECH AND THE EFFECT THEY ARE HAVING ON DIFFERENT
COMMUNITIES, I REALLY DON’T THINK THAT’S THE WAY TO GO.
ELIMINATING INFORMATION HAS NOT BEEN SOMETHING WE COLLECTIVELY DO AS A COUNTRY BUT LOOKING
AT INSTANCES WE QUALIFY INFORMATION OR DOWNGRADE INFORMATION.
IT STRIKES ME THE ONLY PRACTICAL APPROACH RIGHT NOW.
THE CONCERN IS IF THIS IS NOT SEMI OR SOMEWHAT UNIFORM, ONE PLATFORM MIGHT BE DOING EXCELLENT
JOB BUT INFORMATION TRAVELS. WE’RE DOING WHAT’S PRACTICALLY HUMANLY POSSIBLE
BUT PUT OUT A FIRE HERE AND THERE’S A THOUSAND ONES NOT BEING PUT OUT.
THAT FOR ME IS THE MOST PRESSING SOURCE OF CONCERN.
>>I THINK JUST WHILE WE’RE ON THE TOPIC FROM A SELF REGULATORY STANDPOINT, I KNOW I CAN
ONLY SPEAK FOR TWITTER, BUT SOME OTHER PLATFORMS HAVE SIMILAR APPROACHES, IS WE HAVE RULES
AGAINST SPAM, PLATFORM MANIPULATION AND MONITOR. PEOPLE TRYING TO USE OUR SYSTEM TO ARTIFICIALLY
AMPLIFY A MESSAGE WE HAVE STRICT RULES AGAINST THAT BUT WE PROACTIVELY MONITOR FOR THAT ACTIVITY.
TO DATE WE HAVEN’T SEEN ANYTHING ON THIS FRONT FROM THAT STANDPOINT BUT WE’RE ALWAYS ON THE
LOOKOUT FOR IT. IT WOULD BE SOMETHING THAT WE WOULD TAKE DOWN
IF WE DISCOVERED A GROUP OF BAD ACTORS TRYING TO GAME OUR SYSTEM.
>>ANY COMMENTS FROM OUR COMMITTEE MEMBERS ON THE LINE?>>THE LINES ARE OPEN SO THEY CAN MAKE A COMMENT
WHENEVER THEY WANT.>>OKAY.
DR. SAHINOVIC, ANY COMMENTS FROM W.H.O. OR VACCINE SAFETY NET?
ALL RIGHT. IF NOT, LEN, YOU WERE NEXT.
>>LEONARD FRIEDMAN. PART OF THE INFORMATION DEALS WITH THE ISSUE
OF TRUST. I’M CONTINUALLY STRUCK BUT TRYING TO COME
TO GRIPS, SO MUCH THAT CAME THROUGH THE GALLUP SURVEY THIS MORNING DOESN’T TRUST WHAT WE
CONSIDER TRUSTWORTHY SOURCES LIKE W.H.O. OR CDC.
PEOPLE THEY WILL TRUST, SUCH AS OTHER PARENTS, PEOPLE WHO HAD THESE DISEASES CAN SHARE THEIR
STORIES, BECAUSE WE LIVE IN AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE PEOPLE DON’T TRUST WHAT WE CONSIDER
TRUSTWORTHY ORGANIZATIONS.>>I CAN COMMENT.
THAT CLOSELY RELATED TO THE PREVIOUS TOPIC. WE HAVE TO ALSO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN REVEALED
AND STATED PREFERENCES. AND ALSO CONSIDER THE REAL IMPACT OF SOCIAL
MEDIA, FOR EXAMPLE, ON REVEALED PREFERENCES OF PEOPLE.
MAYBE, YOU KNOW, TWO OUT OF TEN AMERICANS SAY THEY ARE WORRIED ABOUT VACCINES, BUT DO
20% OF AMERICAN CHILDREN ARE NOT VACCINATED? I DON’T THINK SO.
SO ALTHOUGH, YEAH, I MAY SAY I’M WORRIED, BECAUSE I READ SOMETHING ON TWITTER, WHEN
I GO TO MY DAUGHTER’S PEDIATRICIAN AND I JUST SEE HER, AND I FEEL THE CONFIDENCE THAT SHE
HAS IN WHAT SHE’S DOING I DON’T EVEN BOTHER ASKING, DOCTOR, DO YOU THINK IT’S SAFE OR
NOT? AND THAT TAKES ME TO THE QUESTION THAT YOU
ASKED, THAT MAYBE WE ARE TOO MUCH WORRIED ABOUT SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE IMPACT THAT IT
MAY HAVE, ESPECIALLY GIVEN THAT PEOPLE ARE TRUSTING THESE, YOU KNOW, TRADITIONAL PLATFORMS
LESS THAN BEFORE, SO TWO THINGS. FIRST OF ALL, YOU DON’T WANT TO MAKE YOU DON’T
WANT TO TURN THESE SEMI INFORMAL SOURCES OF NEWS TO MAINSTREAM MEDIA BECAUSE PEOPLE EVEN
HAVE LESS TRUST IN MAINSTREAM MEDIA, SO IF TWITTER BECOMES YET ANOTHER MAINSTREAM MEDIA
EVEN WHEN YOU PUT THE RIGHT INFORMATION ON IT AND RIGHT TO REACH THE RIGHT AUDIENCE,
IT WILL NO LONGER BE EFFECTIVE. PEOPLE WILL BE IMMUNE TO THE RIGHT INFORMATION
THAT THEY WILL RECEIVE ON TWITTER, PRECISELY DUE TO THE LACK OF TRUST.
REGULATING IT, ALTHOUGH IT MAY HAVE SOME BENEFITS IN THE SHORT RUN, IN THE LONG RUN IT WILL
DETERIORATE THE TRUST OF THE PEOPLE ON THESE PLATFORMS.
AND MAYBE WE WILL HAVE MUCH BETTER RETURN ON INVESTMENT IF WE FOCUS ON PAIN POINTS,
CONTACT POINTS, WHERE PARENTS REALLY HAVE TO MAKE THAT DECISION.
AND THAT IS IN RELATIONSHIP WITH PEDIATRICIAN, AND THERE’S A LOT OF LITERATURE THAT SHOWS
PEOPLE REALLY TRUST THOSE PROFESSIONS, AND MAYBE WE SHOULD THINK ABOUT HOW WE CAN DISSEMINATE
THE RIGHT INFORMATION THROUGH PEDIATRICIAN’S OFFICE.
IF THE PEDIATRICIAN OF MY DAUGHTER SENDS AN E MAIL TO ME I’M MUCH MORE LIKELY TO TRUST
THE CONTENT OF THAT E MAIL THAN A TWEET THAT I SEE FROM A RANDOM PERSON ON TWITTER.
OR EVEN IF THE TWEET IS FROM THE VERY REPUTABLE SOURCE, BECAUSE I HAVE A PERSONAL CONNECTION
WITH THE PEDIATRIC, I KNOW HER, SHE KNOWS ME BY NAME, I KNOW THAT THROUGH HER INTERACTIONS
WITH MY DAUGHTER I KNOW SHE LOVES MY DAUGHTER. SHE CARES ABOUT MY DAUGHTER.
SO SHE WOULDN’T BE, YOU KNOW, SAYING SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO HURT MY DAUGHTER.
SO, MAYBE FINDING DOING TWO THINGS. FIRST OF ALL, IF IT’S BEEN DONE I’M NOT AWARE
OF THE ACTUAL CAUSAL IMPACT OF EXPOSURE TO SOCIAL MEDIA, AND REFRAINING FROM HAVING YOUR
KIDS VACCINATED, THAT IS THE FIRST SO WE CAN SAY, OKAY, THIS IS THE IMPACT.
AND THEN WE CAN DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT IT’S EVEN WORTH, YOU KNOW, BOTHERING WITH.
AND THE SECOND ONE IS TO SEE HOW MUCH WE CAN IMPROVE THE SITUATION BY FOCUSING ON THE OFFLINE
COMMUNITIES, AND SOCIAL GROUPS OUTSIDE OF THE ONLINE COMMUNITIES, THAT CAN HAVE AN IMPACT,
A REAL GOOD EXAMPLE WAS IN THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES WHEN YOU CAN HAVE MODELING.
THERE IS, YOU KNOW, TRUSTED MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY THAT SAYS I’M GOING TO VACCINATE MY
CHILDREN, AND THEN THE PEOPLE ARE GOING TO FOLLOW.
ANOTHER ONE, ANOTHER EXAMPLE, ROLE MODEL COULD BE YOUR PEDIATRICIAN.
THAT THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE A SPECIFIC CONVERSATION WITH YOU THAT THEY ARE GOING TO ANSWER THE
QUESTIONS THAT YOU MAY NOT BE WILLING TO ASK PUBLICLY OR IF YOU SEARCH FOR THEM ONLINE
IT WILL TAKE YOU INTO A RABBIT HOLE.>>THANK YOU ALL.
I’M SORRY WE’VE GOT A COUPLE PEOPLE WE DIDN’T GET TO BUT WE’VE RUN OUT OF TIME FOR THIS
SESSION. THANK YOU ALL FOR A VERY INTERESTING SESSION.
WE’RE GOING TO NOW TAKE A BREAK. WE WILL START BACK PROMPTLY AT 10:00.
LET’S HAVE A FINAL ROUND OF APPLAUSE FOR THIS PANEL.
[APPLAUSE]