Hey YouTube, Jim here! Welcome to Top 10 Archive! The mind is a fascinating thing, and one of
the most incredible thing about the brain is the ability to trick itself. It can see one object or event but completely
register another. We all remember the white and gold dress,
right? Or was it a black and blue dress? Get ready for a mind-bending video – here
are ten optical illusions that will melt your brain! But before we get started, why not become
an archivist today by clicking that subscribe button and notification bell so you don’t
miss out on any future uploads! If you end up enjoying this video, let us
know by giving it a thumbs up and in the comment section, tell us your favorite optical illusion! 10. The Illusion of Movement
Take a second to look at this image. Keep your head and your eyes still and just
focus on the patterns. Now, take a look at this image. Keep your head still again and just focus
on one of the blue circles. What if I told you that nothing was actually
moving? Yep, the motion is all in your mind. There are several theories for why we see
these images as moving things. It’s thought by many that the way we perceive
light and dark is to blame for the fact that we see movement when the images are actually
static. The neurons in your eye encode dark differently
from the way they encode light. There’s a slight lag in the way that our
brains receive information, and it could be that lag that makes us think we’re seeing
an image in motion. Other scientists believe that it’s to do
with fixation jitters, which are the involuntary eye movements that create the illusion that
objects close to where your eyes are fixated are moving. Another theory suggests that it’s our inbuilt
motion detectors that get confused. Who knows which theory is true, but this illusion
is definitely melting my brain. 9. Checkerboard
Take a look at this checkerboard. Square A looks much darker than square B,
doesn’t it? Well, would you believe – both squares are
exactly the same color! If you put this image through an editing program
you’d see that they both have the exact same color value as one another. Crazy, huh? This illusion was created by an MIT scientist
to demonstrate how we humans deal with shadows. It turns out that when we attempt to determine
the color of a surface, our brains consider the fact that shadows are misleading and that
they make surfaces look darker than they actually are. We compensate for that by interpreting shadowy
surfaces as being lighter than they actually appear to the eye. In this illusion, we interpret square B to
be lighter because we are compensating for the fact that it is cast in shadow. Look at this image with the parallel lines
added. The squares should appear to be more similar
now. Do they? 8. Parallel Lines
Check out this image here. Are the red lines straight, or do they have
a curve in them? To me, they definitely look bowed, but they
are in fact parallel lines. Did they trick you too? This illusion is called the Hering illusion. It was created in 1861 to prove how our brains
overestimate the angle made at the points where the red and blue lines cross. But why do our brains get this wrong? Apparently, it’s due to our tendency to
try and predict the near future. Not in a mystical way, but in a more scientific
manner. As we discovered with the movement illusion,
there’s a short lag between the time light hits the retina and the time the brain perceives
that light. It’s thought that the human visual system
has evolved over time to compensate for that lag by making images of what it thinks will
occur in one-tenth of a second into the future. The lines in this image trick us into thinking
we’re moving forward, so our brain tries to perceive what the world will look like
in the next instant. 7. Geometric Illusions
Geometric optical illusions are probably the most common illusions of all. These illusions encompass anything related
to shape, and they use their geometrical properties to trick us into believing something that
isn’t actually true. Take this café wall in Bristol in the UK. It looks as though the lines are severely
sloped, doesn’t it? But, they’re actually perfectly parallel. If we superimpose a horizontal line over the
image, it suddenly becomes much clearer that there are no slopes in the lines at all. It’s believed that this illusion happens
because of how the light spreads from bright to dark in the back of our eyes. This can quickly be proven by changing the
brightness of the image… See, the illusion totally disappears, doesn’t
it? 6. Spinning Dancer
You’ve probably seen this spinning dancer, but you may not know how the illusion works. In fact, you might watch the dander and think
that there’s no illusion happening at all. But there definitely is. Some people see her spinning clockwise, and
others anticlockwise. Some people can even make her switch by simply
focusing on a specific part of the dancer’s body. Are you one of them? Let me know in the comments which one you
are. This illusion was created by a web designer
in 2003. It tricks us because the dancer doesn’t
have any depth. Her solid black silhouette doesn’t give
us any visual clues for which way she’s spinning so it’s possible to perceive her
to be spinning either way. Essentially, your brain is filling in the
gaps. 5. Hermann Grid Illusion
Take a look at this black and white grid. When you scan your eyes over it, what do you
notice? Can you see the gray discs that appear at
every intersection? Now, stare at one of the intersections – any
will work – and see what happens. Suddenly, there’s no gray disc in that intersection. Are you seeing that? This is known as the Hermann grid illusion,
this weird visual trick was discovered in the 19th century. This phenomenon is said to be caused by something
called lateral inhibition. The divide between receptor cells taking in
the information provided by the white lines and receptor cells carrying information about
the black squares. When they combine, the brain sort of glitches
out and creates faulty data. Take another look at the grid. It’s fascinating, isn’t it? How your mind is adding in and taking away
information all the time. 4. Ebbinghaus Illusion
Now, take a look at this image. Which orange circle do you think is the biggest? This one on the left, or this one on the right? What if I was to tell you that they’re exactly
the same size? To me, the orange circle on the right looks
much larger – is that the case for you too? This illusion is called the Ebbinghaus illusion,
and it’s even cooler when you look at the dynamic version. First, let’s look at the stationary dynamic
Ebbinghaus. Focus your attention on the dot in the middle
of the central circle… Did you feel as though the central circle
was changing size? Let’s try another version of this same illusion. Focus on the dot on the upper left outer circle… The illusion was much clearer that time, wasn’t
it! Recent studies have suggested that the reasons
we perceive the circles to be different sizes are the distance of the surrounding circles
from the central circle and the completeness of the ring. Incredible. 3. Lilac Chaser
This illusion is very similar to the Hermann Grid illusion. It’s called the lilac chaser and here is
how it works. Focus on the crosshairs in the center of the
image. I’m going to give you 20 seconds to do so… What happened? Did the lilac circles fade to gray? Did you see a green dot instead of the lilac
dots? My mind is officially blown, how about yours? This illusion is officially called Troxler’s
fading or Troxler’s effect, and it was discovered in the early 19th century. As is the case with many of the illusions
on this list, this crazy effect is said to be caused by our visual neurons. In this case, neurons switch off their awareness
of things that aren’t changing, while heightening their perception of things that are. The lilac dots don’t move, but the absence
of the dots does. Once your brain has had a chance to figure
out what’s happening, the lilac dots begin to disappear so that all we can see is the
disappearing dot. But, why does the dot also turn green? Well, that’s due to a secondary illusion. The dot changes color because your retina
has been oversaturated with the lilac dots. So, when the lilac dots disappear you begin
to see lilac’s complimentary color which is composed of white light minus lilac. That color happens to be mint green. 2. Change Blindness
This next illusion really blows my mind. The theory is that we humans have a limit
to our attention span, and that when images flicker or fade over a period of time you
simply won’t notice that they’re changing. Let’s put that theory to the test. Focus on the center of this image. We’re going to make it flash, and there
will be a change in the image every single time. Here we go… Did you see it? Try again… Did you see it? No? Ok – if we make the change quickly and without
the flash, you’re much more likely to see it… That’s right, the man’s pants completely
change color. Let’s look at an example of change blindness
with fading rather than flashing. Take a look at this image of a fairground
ride. Something significant is going to change in
this image and even though I’m telling you it’s happening, you’re not going to be
able to see it… There we go. Did you notice the change? Let me know in the comments if you did. If we quickly change back to the image as
it was at the start you’ll immediately see the difference. Amazing, huh? 1. Motion After Effect
This next illusion is sort of linked to the movement illusion that we’ve just seen. Look at the blue dot that’s on the screen
right now. When the spiral appears in a second, continue
to stare at the blue dot for thirty seconds… What happened when the pattern switched? Does the image continue to look as though
it was moving? Is it distorting as you continue to stare
at it? Take a look around the room – I bet your
furniture is moving too, right? FMRI scans can actually measure your brain’s
reaction to this illusion, meaning it’s so good that it actually convinces you that
the movement is happening. This crazy illusion is caused when your neurons
become accustomed to seeing a repetitive pattern of movement. Then, when it changes, they force themselves
to adapt to assume that the movement is going to continue. This is why you see the movement continuing
– you are essentially waiting for your neurons to adapt again: this time to the still image
that it’s now seeing. This effect is especially strong if you focus
on one spot, which is why I told you to look at the blue dot. Amazing, huh?